Longitudinal Study of the Fundamental Frequency of Hunger Cries Along the First 6 Months of Healthy Babies

  • Heidi Elisabeth Baeck
    Affiliations
    From the Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Marcio Nogueira de Souza
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Marcio Nogueira de Souza, COPPE/UFRJ, Programa de Engenharia Biomédica, Centro de Tecnologia (CT), Bloco H - Sala 327, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, Caixa Postal 68510 CEP 2195-970.
    Affiliations
    From the Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Electronic Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author

      Summary

      Potentially rich in information, the baby's cry has motivated several researches along the years. Although most of these studies have generated important knowledge about the baby's cry, they were focused on the neonatal period. The few longitudinal studies on changes in the acoustical features of the cry over the baby's growth have been done with a small sample and a large recording interval. Aiming to overcome such methodological limitations, this work investigated hunger cries using a more representative sample size (30 babies) and time resolution (biweekly intervals) from birth to 6 months of baby's age. The findings indicate that the fundamental frequency (f0) of the cry signals did vary more than previously reported in the literature. The results showed a widespread oscillatory behavior in f0 evolution along all the 6 months with an especially significant decrease from birth to the 15th day of life. The present results are not clinically applicable yet, but they pointed some novel aspects of the f0 mean values along the baby's growth. These findings and further longitudinal studies can help standardize age-related cry parameters, which are essential for medical and language development researches.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • French V.
        History of parenting: the ancient Mediterranean world.
        in: Bornstein M.H. Handbook of Parenting: Biology and Ecology of Parenting. 2. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ1995: 263-284
        • Lind J.
        • Wasz-Höckert O.
        • Rosemberg G.
        • et al.
        Sound spectrography in pediatric diagnosis.
        Acta Paediatr Scand. 1967; 117: 1-113
        • Wasz-Höckert O.
        • Lind J.
        • Vuorenkoski V.
        • Partanen T.J.
        • Valanne E.
        The infant cry. A spectrographic and auditory analysis.
        Clin Dev Med. 1968; 29: 1-42
        • Koivisto M.
        Cry analysis in infants with Rh haemolytic disease.
        Acta Paediatr Scand. 1967; 335: 1-73
        • Michelsson K.
        Cry analysis of symptomless low birth weight neonates and asphyxiated newborn infants.
        Acta Paediatr Scand. 1971; 216: 1-45
        • Pearce S.
        • Taylor B.
        Energy distribution in the spectrograms of the cries of normal and birth asphyxiated infants.
        Physiol Meas. 1993; 14: 263-268
        • Lester B.
        Developmental outcome prediction from acoustic cry analysis in term and preterm infants.
        Pediatrics. 1987; 80: 529-534
        • Cacace A.
        • Robb M.
        • Saxman J.
        • Risemberg H.
        • Koltai P.
        Acoustic features of normal-hearing pre-term infant cry.
        Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995; 33: 213-224
        • Colton R.
        • Steinschneider A.
        The cry characteristics of an infant who died of sudden infant death syndrome.
        J Speech Hear Disord. 1981; 46: 359-363
        • Corwin M.J.
        • Lester B.M.
        Newborn acoustic cry characteristics of infants subsequently dying of sudden infant death syndrome.
        Pediatrics. 1995; 96: 73-77
        • Legido A.
        Neurological manifestations of children exposed to drugs in utero.
        Int Pediatr. 1998; 13: 70-83
        • Michelsson K.
        • Sirvö P.
        Cry analysis in congenital hypothyroidism.
        Folia Phoniatr. 1976; 28: 40-47
        • Aydinli N.
        • Citak A.
        • Caliskan M.
        • Karabocuoglu M.
        • Baysal S.
        • Ozmen M.
        Vitamin K deficiency—late intracranial haemorrhage.
        Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 1998; 2: 199-203
        • Corwin M.J.
        • Lester B.M.
        • Sepkowsi C.
        • McLaughlin S.
        • Kayne H.
        • Golub H.
        Effects of in uterus cocaine exposure on newborn acoustical cry characteristics.
        Pediatrics. 1992; 89: 1199-1203
        • Lester B.
        • Dreher M.
        Effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on newborn cry.
        Child Dev. 1989; 60: 765-771
        • Raes J.
        • Michelsson K.
        • Dehaen F.
        • Despontin M.
        Cry analysis in infants with infections and congenital disorders of the larynx.
        Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1982; 4: 157-169
        • Möller S.
        • Schönweller R.
        Analysis of infant cries for the early detection of hearing impairment.
        Speech Commun. 1999; 28: 175-193
        • Zeskind P.
        Behavior dimensions and cry sounds of infants of differential fetal growth.
        Infant Behav Dev. 1981; 4: 297-306
        • Barr R.G.
        • Hopkins B.
        • Green J.A.
        Crying as a Sign, a Symptom, & a Signal.
        Mac Keith Press, London2000
        • Gilbert H.R.
        • Robb M.P.
        Vocal fundamental frequency characteristics of infant hunger cries: birth to 12 months.
        Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996; 34: 237-243
        • Prescott R.
        Infant cry sounds: developmental features.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1975; 57: 1186-1191
        • Fairbanks G.
        An acoustical study of the pitch of infant hunger wails.
        Child Dev. 1942; 13: 227-232
        • Kent R.
        Anatomical and neuromuscular maturation of the speech mechanism: evidence from acoustic studies.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1976; 19: 421-447
        • Sheppard W.C.
        • Lane H.L.
        Development of the prosodic features of infant vocalizing.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1968; 11: 94-108
        • Lind K.
        • Wermke K.
        Development of the vocal fundamental frequency of spontaneous cries during the first 3 months.
        Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002; 64: 97-104
        • Wermke K.
        • Mende W.
        • Manfredi C.
        • Bruscaglioni P.
        Developmental aspects of infant's cry melody and formants.
        Med Eng Phys. 2002; 24: 501-514
        • Scheiner E.
        • Hammerschmidt T.K.
        • Jürgens U.
        • Zwirner P.
        Acoustic analysis of developmental changes and emotional expression in the preverbal vocalizations of infants.
        J Voice. 2002; 16: 509-529
        • Rothgänger H.
        Analysis of the sounds of the child in the first year of age and a comparison to the language.
        Early Hum Dev. 2003; 75: 55-69
        • Wolf P.H.
        The natural history of crying and other vocalizations in early infancy.
        in: Foss B.S. Determinants of Infant Behavior. Methuen, London1969: 81-109
        • Golub H.L.
        • Corwin M.J.
        Infant cry: a clue to diagnosis.
        Pediatrics. 1980; 69: 197-201
        • Lester B.M.
        A biosocial model of infant cry.
        in: Lipsitt L. Rovee-Collier C. Advances in Infancy Research. Ablex, Norwood, NY1984: 167-212
        • Rabiner L.R.
        • Sambour M.R.
        An algorithm for determining the endpoints of isolated utterances.
        Bell Syst Tech J. 1975; 54: 297-315
        • Boersma P.P.G.
        Functional Phonology.
        Holland Academic Graphics, Amsterdan1998
        • Colton R.H.
        • Steinscheneider A.
        • Black L.
        • Gleason J.
        The newborn infant cry: its potential implications for development and SIDS.
        in: Lester B.M. Boukydis C.F.Z. Infant Cry. Theoretical and Research Perspectives. Plenum Press, New York, NY1985: 119-138
        • Benson R.C.
        Handbook of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
        3rd ed. Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, CA1968
        • Resende J.
        Obstetricia.
        6th ed. Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil1991
        • Forest M.G.
        • Cathiard A.M.
        • Bertrand J.A.
        Evidence of testicular activity in early infancy.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1973; 37: 148-151
        • Hanskell J.A.
        Adjusting adolescents' vocal self-perception.
        Lang Speech Hear Serv Schools. 1991; 22: 168-172
        • Aroson A.E.
        Clinical Voice Disorders.
        Thieme, New York, NY1990 (43–44)
        • Spiegel J.R.
        • Sataloff R.T.
        • Emerich K.A.
        The young adult voice.
        J Voice. 1997; 11: 138-143
        • Murry T.
        • Hoint-Dalgaarg J.
        • Garacco V.L.
        Infant vocalization: a longitudinal study of acoustic and temporal parameters.
        Folia Phoniatr. 1983; 35: 245-253