Advertisement

Voice and Physical Appearance in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

      Summary

      The study aims to investigate if a similar interaction between physical appearance and voice could be found in female-to-male transsexuals as had been observed in male-to-female transsexuals. A panel of judges rated “maleness” of seven female-to-male transsexuals from video-recorded speech samples using three modes of presentation: auditory-only presentation, visual-only presentation, and audiovisual presentation. For the group of transsexuals as a whole, no significant differences were found between scores given in the auditory-only mode or the visual-only mode and those given in the audiovisual mode. Analysis of individual results, however, yielded significant differences in some individuals and there was some relation with hormone treatment. There was no significant correlation between the ratings of “maleness” in the auditory-only mode and fundamental frequency. Physical appearance in female-to-male transsexuals appears not to be a strong influencing factor in general, but may interact with gender recognition based on the voice in some individuals. The absence of a correlation between fundamental frequency and rating of maleness could mean that in female-to-male transsexuals, fundamental frequency is a relatively less important factor for gender expression or perhaps also that a higher voice in males is more accepted than a lower voice in females.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Oates J.
        • Dacakis G.
        Voice change in transsexuals.
        Venereology. 1997; 10: 178-187
        • Spencer L.E.
        Speech characteristics of male-to-female transsexuals: a perceptual and acoustic study.
        Folia Phoniatr. 1988; 40: 31-42
        • Wolfe V.
        • Ratusnik D.L.
        • Smith F.H.
        • Northrop G.
        Intonation and fundamental frequency in male-to-female transsexuals.
        J Speech Hear Disord. 1990; 55: 43-50
        • Brown M.
        • Perry A.
        • Cheesman A.D.
        • Pring T.
        Pitch change in male-to-female transsexuals: has phonosurgery a role to play?.
        Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2000; 35: 129-136
        • Van Borsel J.
        • De Cuypere G.
        • Van den Berghe H.
        Physical appearance and voice in male-to-female transsexuals.
        J Voice. 2001; 15: 570-575
        • Battin R.R.
        Treatment of the transsexual voice.
        in: Perkins W.H. Current Therapy of Communication Disorders: Voice Disorders. Thieme-Stratton, New York, NY1983: 63-66
        • Hamburger C.
        Endocrine treatment of male and female transsexualism.
        in: Green R. Money J. Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD1969: 291-307
        • Colton R.H.
        • Casper J.K.
        • Hirano M.
        Understanding Voice Problems: A Physiological Perspective for Diagnosis and Treatment.
        Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD1996
        • International Phonetic Association
        The Principles of the International Phonetic Association.
        University College London, London1974
      1. Van Borsel J, Van Eynde E, De Cuypere G, Bonte K: Feminine after cricothyroid approximation? J Voice DOI: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2006.11.001.

        • Gelfer M.P.
        • Schofeld K.J.
        Comparison of acoustic and perceptual measures of voice in male-to-female transsexuals perceived as female versus those perceived as male.
        J Voice. 2000; 14: 22-33