Pediatric Normative Data for the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600

Published:November 26, 2012DOI:



      The objectives of this study were to (1) establish a preliminary pediatric normative database for the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS) Model 6600 (KayPENTAX Corp, Montvale, NJ) and (2) identify whether the data obtained were age- and/or gender-dependent.

      Study Design

      Prospective data collection across groups.


      A sample of 60 children (30 females and 30 males) with normal voices was divided into three age groups (6.0–9.11, 10.0–13.11, 14.0–17.11 years) with equal distribution of males and females within each group. Five PAS protocols (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, variation in sound pressure level, voicing efficiency) were used to collect 45 phonatory aerodynamic measures.


      Measurements for the 45 PAS parameters examined revealed 13 parameters to have a difference that was statistically significant by age and/or gender. There was a significant age×gender interaction for mean pitch in the four protocols that reported this measure. Males in the oldest group had significantly lower mean pitch values than the middle and young groups. Statistically significant main effect differences were noted for seven parameters across three age groups (expiratory volume, expiratory airflow duration, phonation time, pitch range (in 2 protocols), aerodynamic resistance, acoustic ohms). Significant main effect differences for genders (males > females) were found for expiratory volume and peak expiratory airflow.


      The age- and gender-related differences found for some parameters within each of the five protocols are important for the interpretation of data obtained from PAS. These results could be explained by developmental changes that occur in the male and female respiratory and laryngeal systems.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment


      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Stemple J.C.
        • Glaze L.
        • Klaben B.
        Clinical Voice Pathology Theory and Management.
        4th ed. Plural Publishing, San Diego, CA2010
        • Baken R.
        • Orlikoff R.
        Clinical Measurements of Speech and Voice.
        2nd ed. Thompson Learning, Clifton Park, NJ2000
        • Bless D.M.
        Assessment of laryngeal function.
        in: Bless C.N.F.D.M. Phonosurgery. Raven Press, New York1991: 91-122
        • Hirano M.
        • Bless D.M.
        Videostroboscopic Examination of the Larynx.
        Singular Publishing Group, San Diego, CA1993
        • Scherer R.C.
        Aerodynamic Assessment in Voice Production. Assessment of Speech and Voice Production: Research and Clinical Applications.
        National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders, Bethesda, MD1991 (42–49)
        • Sapienza C.M.
        Glottal airflow: instrumentation and interpretation.
        Fla J Commun Dis. 1996; 16: 3-7
        • Hirano M.
        Clinical Examination of Voice.
        Springer Verlag, New York1981
        • Smitheran J.
        • Hixon Y.J.
        A clinical method for estimating laryngeal airway resistance during vowel production.
        J Speech Hearing Disord. 1981; 46: 138-146
        • Melcon M.
        • Hoit J.D.
        • Hixon T.J.
        Age and laryngeal airway resistance during vowel production.
        J Speech Hearing Disord. 1989; 54: 282-286
        • Hoit J.D.
        • Hixon T.J.
        Age and laryngeal airway resistance during vowel production in women.
        J Speech Hearing Res. 1992; 35: 309-313
        • Rothenberg M.
        A new inverse filtering technique for deriving the glottal airflow wave form during voicing.
        J Acout Soc Am. 1973; 53: 1632-1645
        • Sapienza C.M.
        • Stathopoulos E.T.
        Respiratory and laryngeal measures of children and women with bilateral vocal fold nodules.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1994; 37: 1229-1243
        • Iwata S.
        • Von Leden H.
        • Williams D.
        Air flow measurement during phonation.
        J Commun Dis. 1972; 5: 67-79
        • Netsell R.
        • Lotz W.
        • Shaughnessy A.L.
        Laryngeal aerodynamics associated with selected voice disorders.
        Am J Otol. 1984; 5: 397-403
        • Hillman R.E.
        • Holmberg E.B.
        • Perkell J.S.
        • Walsh M.
        • Vaughan C.
        Objective assessment of vocal hyperfunction: an experimental framework and initial results.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1989; 32: 373-392
        • Weinrich B.
        • Salz B.
        • Hughes M.
        Aerodynamic measurements: normative data for children 6:0 to 10:11 years.
        J Voice. 1997; 19: 326-339
      1. Zraick RI, Smith-Olinde L, Schotts LL. Adult normative data for the KayPENTAX phonatory aerodynamic system model 6600.

        • Stathopoulos E.T.
        Relationship between intraoral air pressure and vocal intensity in children and adults.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1986; 29: 71-74
        • Sapienza C.M.
        • Stathopoulos E.T.
        Comparison of maximum flow declination rate: children versus adults.
        J Voice. 1994; 8: 240-247
        • Goozee J.V.
        • Murdoch B.E.
        • Theodores D.G.
        • Thompson E.C.
        The effects of age and gender on laryngeal aerodynamics.
        Int J Lang Commun Disord. 1998; 33: 221-238
        • Stathopoulos E.T.
        • Sapienza C.M.
        Developmental changes in laryngeal and respiratory function with variations in sound pressure level.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1997; 40: 595-614
        • Yiu E.M.
        • Yuen Y.M.
        • Whitehill T.
        • Winkworth A.
        Reliability and applicability of aerodynamic measures in dysphonia assessment.
        Clin Linguist Phon. 2004; 18: 463-478
        • Schutte H.K.
        Integrated aerodynamic measurements.
        J Voice. 1992; 6: 127-134
        • Hiss S.G.
        • Treole K.
        • Stuart A.
        Effect of age, gender, and repeated measures on intraoral air pressure in normal adults.
        J Voice. 2001; 15: 159-164
        • Holmberg E.B.
        • Hillman R.E.
        • Perkell J.S.
        • Gress C.
        Relationship between intra-speaker variation in aerodynamic measures of voice production and variation in SPL across repeated recordings.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1994; 37: 484-495
        • Cohen J.
        Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences.
        2nd ed. L. Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ1988
        • Neter J.
        • Kutner M.H.
        • Nachtsheim C.J.
        • Wasserman W.
        Applied Linear Statistical Models.
        4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY1996
        • Hoit J.D.
        • Hixon T.J.
        • Watson P.J.
        • Morgan W.J.
        Speech breathing in children and adolescents.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1990; 33: 51-69
        • Finnegan D.E.
        Maximum phonation time for children with normal voices.
        J Commun Dis. 1985; 17: 309-317
        • Netsell R.
        • Lotz W.
        • Peters J.E.
        • Schulte L.
        Developmental patterns of laryngeal and respiratory function for speech production.
        J Voice. 1994; 8: 123-131
        • Keilman A.
        • Bader C.
        Development of aerodynamic aspects in children's voice.
        Inl J Ped Otol. 1995; 31: 183-190
        • Beckett R.L.
        • Thoelke W.
        • Cowan L.
        A normative study of airflow in children.
        Br J Dis Commun. 1971; 6: 13-16
        • Trullinger R.W.
        • Emanuel F.W.
        Airflow, volume, and duration characteristics of sustained vowel productions of normal-speaking children.
        Folia Phoniatr. 1989; 41: 297-307