In Vivo Measurement of Pediatric Vocal Fold Motion Using Structured Light Laser Projection



      The aim of the study was to present the development of a miniature structured light laser projection endoscope and to quantify vocal fold length and vibratory features related to impact stress of the pediatric glottis using high-speed imaging.

      Study Design

      The custom-developed laser projection system consists of a green laser with a 4-mm diameter optics module at the tip of the endoscope, projecting 20 vertical laser lines on the glottis. Measurements of absolute phonatory vocal fold length, membranous vocal fold length, peak amplitude, amplitude-to-length ratio, average closing velocity, and impact velocity were obtained in five children (6–9 years), two adult male and three adult female participants without voice disorders, and one child (10 years) with bilateral vocal fold nodules during modal phonation.


      Independent measurements made on the glottal length of a vocal fold phantom demonstrated a 0.13 mm bias error with a standard deviation of 0.23 mm, indicating adequate precision and accuracy for measuring vocal fold structures and displacement. First, in vivo measurements of amplitude-to-length ratio, peak closing velocity, and impact velocity during phonation in pediatric population and a child with vocal fold nodules are reported.


      The proposed laser projection system can be used to obtain in vivo measurements of absolute length and vibratory features in children and adults. Children have large amplitude-to-length ratio compared with typically developing adults, whereas nodules result in larger peak amplitude, amplitude-to-length ratio, average closing velocity, and impact velocity compared with typically developing children.

      Key Words

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