Research Article| Volume 34, ISSUE 3, P488.e9-488.e27, May 2020

A Novel Laryngeal Palpatory Scale (LPS) in Patients with Muscle Tension Dysphonia

Published:October 12, 2018DOI:



      Laryngeal palpation is a routine clinical method for evaluation of patients with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). The aim of this study was to develop a new comprehensive valid and reliable “laryngeal palpatory scale” (LPS), based on psychometric criteria.


      The scale items were selected based on an in-depth analysis of the literature and an expert focus group. Scale item generation and item reduction were followed by a psychometric assessment. Qualitative and quantitative content validity (the content validity ratio (CVR), content validity index (CVI)), the qualitative face validity, and the inter-rater reliability were determined. For this purpose, 531 patients were assessed and finally 55 patients with primary MTD (26 women, mean age: 40.8 years, SD: 12.5; 29 male, mean age: 41.6 years, SD: 11.8) participated in the study. A weighted kappa (k*) statistic was used to examine the inter-rater reliability for each single item.


      Based on the CVR, three items were omitted because they had a score of less than 0.62. The CVI for all remaining items was greater than 0.79 and the scale CVI was equal to 0.96. The final 45 items were a result of the study. The inter-rater reliability for each single item ranged from 0.41 to 1, indicating moderate to almost perfect agreement.


      The LPS is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing patients with MTD. However, future studies are needed to provide adequate data on sensitivity, specificity, concurrent validity, and cutoff scores.

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