Research Article| Volume 34, ISSUE 3, P490.e1-490.e6, May 2020

Comparison of Maximum Oxygen Uptake and Rating Perceived Exertion in Woman's Kabaddi Athletes (Without Breathy Voice to Severe Breathy Voice)

  • Samaneh Ebrahimi
    Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mandana Gholami
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mandana Gholami, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Search for articles by this author
Published:December 07, 2018DOI:



      There is limited research on voice problems of athletes, especially Kabaddi athletes who use their voice during Kabaddi exercises and may damage their vocal folds and impair their voice quality. The present study aimed to compare maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and rating perceived exertion (RPE) in Woman's Kabaddi athletes without breathy voice (BV) to severe BV.

      Materials and Methods

      Seventy woman's Kabaddi athletes (mean age of 20.5 ± 2.7 years, height of 163 ± 3.6 cm, weight of 61.4 ± 5.4 kg) at the club and national team level (without BV to severe BV) were compared in this study. Data were collected by imaging the larynx by a stroboscopic device (there is gap and asymmetry between vocal folds, presence of mass on vocal folds, muscle tension dysphonia, hoarseness, and harshness), evaluating the voice parameters by Vocal Assessment software (mean F0 (Hz), F0SD (Hz), jitter (%), shimmer (%), Normal Noise Energy (NNE) (dB)), and calculating VO2max by Bruce treadmill test. RPE was calculated by a 15-point (6–20) Borg test.


      The results showed that 39 (55.17%) subjects had moderate and high BV symptoms and 31 (44.28%) had no symptoms of BV and low BV. The mean fundamental frequency in the group with moderate and severe BV was equal to 2.59 Hz opposite the mean fundamental frequency in the group without BV and low BV was equal to 0.65 Hz, and in contrast, the jitter (0.47%) opposite (0.19%) and the shimmer was equal to (6.64%) opposite (0.67%) and the NNE was equal to (−3.08 dB) In front of (−11.95 dB). There was no significant difference between VO2max in two groups of Woman's Kabaddi athletes as well as RPE in two groups of Woman's Kabaddi athletes at significant level of P ≤ 0.05.


      Severe BV is affected by voice abuse. Voice abuse during Kabaddi is negatively affecting the quality of voice. After Kabaddi sport, athletes are complained from obstruction, hoarseness, and harshness due to disturbances in vocal folds and throat dryness. According to the data obtained from this study, abuse has a negative effect on vocal folds, which is followed by BV in various degrees in Kabaddi athletes.

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