Analysis of Phonatory and Respiratory Functions in Physical Fitness Instructors in Comparison to Controls

  • Anju Susan Philip
    Department of Speech and Hearing, Manipal College of Health Professions (MCHP), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author
  • Bellur Rajashekhar
    Department of Speech and Hearing, Manipal College of Health Professions (MCHP), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sheela Shekaraiah
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Sheela Shekaraiah, Department of Speech and Hearing, Manipal College of Health Professions (MCHP), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka 576104, India.
    Department of Speech and Hearing, Manipal College of Health Professions (MCHP), Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Manipal, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author
  • Ravishankar N.
    Department of Statistics, MAHE, Manipal, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author
Published:February 10, 2020DOI:



      Professional voice users form an increasing part of our population. Physical fitness instructors listed as professional voice users are at risk for voice problem as they perform vigorous exercises, instruct at the same time and compete vocally with loud background music. Hence, there is a dire need to study the voice problems in this population. The current study was aimed at investigating the phonatory and respiratory functions in physical fitness instructors in comparison to a control group.

      Study Design

      Cross-sectional study design

      Materials and Methods

      Fifty physical fitness instructors (48 males and two females) and 50 controls (45 males and five females) with the age range of 18–40 years were initially enrolled in the study. The phonatory function measures (perceptual, physiological, and acoustic) and respiratory function measures (aerodynamics) were obtained.


      Following the data analysis only for male participants, the majority of the perceptual parameters such as grade, roughness, breathiness, and strain showed significant increase in the clinical group compared to controls (P < 0.05). Similarly, few acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency (F0) related parameters such as average F0, mean F0, highest fundamental frequency (Fhi) and lowest fundamental frequency (Flo) showed significant decrease in clinical group compared to controls (P < 0.05).


      Few perceptual and acoustic parameters are sensitive in differentiating the voice problems in physical fitness instructors from the controls. The significant perceptual and acoustic parameters implied that they are at risk for developing voice problems. Hence, early identification and prevention of voice problems in this population is warranted.

      Key Words

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