Effect of Respiratory Muscle Training on Pitch Range and Sound Duration in Brass Instrument Players and Singers

      Summary

      Objective

      Effective use of respiratory organs is important for musicians. Therefore, the impact of Respiratory Muscle Training (RMT) on phonation is open to research. The aim of this study was to investigate the measurable effects of RMT on blowing in brass instrumental and on voice performance in singers.

      Methods

      Thirty musicians were recruited and separated into a four groups. The brass instrumental and singers groups were further subdivided into control and RMT groups for a 4 week RMT intervention giving a total four groups: singers experimental (SE; n:10), singers control (SC; n:10), brass instrument players experimental (BIPE; n:5), and BIPC (n:5). The groups selected from the musicians of Samsun State Opera and Ballet Directorate and Samsun Metropolitan Municipality Band Team participated in the study.

      Results

      After 4 weeks of RMT application in the study groups, significant increase in all parameters except Forced vital capacity/Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was observed in the values of pulmonary function tests and respiratory muscle strength in subjects with SE and BIPE (P < 0.05). The most significant results of this study are that in addition to changes in the duration of phonation (SE 36%), high-pitch (SE 79%, BIPE 27%) and low-pitch sounds (BIPE 61% and SE 42%), the SE (15%) and BIPE (3%) groups reached higher pitches in the high-pitch notes.

      Conclusions

      It was determined that performance of the highest and lowest pitch sounds within a vocal register in a single breath and phonation times can be improved by RMT.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Sundberg J
        Singing Voice Science.
        Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, IL1987: 214-218
        • Leanderson R
        • Sundberg J
        Breathing for singing.
        J Voice. 1988; 2: 2-12
        • McAllister A
        • Sundberg J
        Data on subglottal pressure and SPL at varied vocal loudness and pitch in 8-11 year old children.
        J Voice. 1998; 12: 166-174
        • Desjardins M
        • Bonilha HS
        The impact of respiratory exercises on voice outcomes: a systematic review of the literature.
        J Voice. 2019; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2019.01.011
        • Cossette I
        • Monaco P
        • Aliverti A
        • et al.
        Chest wall dynamics and muscle recruitment during professional flute playing.
        Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008; 160: 187-195
        • Titze IR
        A model for neurologic sources of aperoidicity in vocal fold viration.
        J Speech Hears Res. 1991; 34: 460-472
        • Beth S.L.
        • Teirstein AS
        • Brown LK
        • et al.
        Pulmonary function in singers and wind-instrument players.
        Chest J. 1985; 88: 201-205
        • Antoniadou M
        • Michaelidis V
        • Tsara V
        Lung function in wind instrument players.
        Pneumon. 2012; 25: 180-183
        • Ray C
        • Michael DT
        • McCoy S
        Effects of respiratory muscle strength training in classically trained singers.
        J Voice. 2018; 32: 25-32
        • Baydar AB
        Breath control and its improvement in brass instruments, Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Master of Music.
        2003: 10-22 (Master Thesis)
        • Traser L
        • Özen AÇ
        • Burk F
        • et al.
        Respiratory dynamics in phonation and breathing: a real-time MRI study.
        Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2017; 236: 69-77
        • Tang J
        • Boliek C
        • Rieger J
        Laryngeal and respiratory behavior during pitch change in professional singers.
        J Voice. 2008; 22: 622-633
        • Watson P
        • Hixon T
        • Stathopoulos E
        • et al.
        Respiratory kinematics in female classical singer.
        J Voice. 1990; 4: 120-128
        • Dries K
        • Vincken W
        • Loeckx J
        • et al.
        Effects of a respiratory muscle training program on respiratory function and musical parameters in saxophone players.
        J New Music Res. 2017; 46: 381-393
        • Natalie W
        • Julia S
        • Megan H
        • et al.
        The effects of expiratory muscle strength training on lung function and musical performance in collegiate wind instrumentalists.
        J Res Music Perform. 2016; : 1-24https://doi.org/10.21061/jrmp.v0i0.737
        • Cutrim ALC
        • Duarte AAM
        • Silva-Filho AC
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training improves autonomic modulation and exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects: a randomized-controlled trial.
        Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2019; 263: 31-37
        • Rodrigues GD
        • Gurgel JL
        • Gonçalves TR
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training improves physical performance and cardiac autonomic modulation in older women.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2018; 118: 1143-1152
        • Gosselink R
        • De Vos J
        • Heuvelli SP van
        • et al.
        Impact of inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: what is the evidence?.
        Eur Respir J. 2011; 37: 416-425https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00031810
        • Weiner P
        • McConnell A
        Respiratory muscle training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: inspiratory, expiratory, or both?.
        Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005; 11: 140-144
        • Lötters F
        • Van Tol B
        • Kwakkel G
        • Gosselink R
        Effects of controlled inspiratory muscle training in patients with COPD: a meta-analysis.
        Eur Respir J. 2002; 20: 570-577https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.02.00237402
        • Charalambous A
        • Molassiotis A
        • Summers Y
        • et al.
        Use of inspiratory muscle training in managing dyspnoea in lung cancer patients.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2017; 12: 206-208
        • Hill K
        • Cecins NM
        • Eastwood PR
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a practical guide for clinicians.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010; 91: 1466-1470
        • Hill K
        • Jenkins SC
        • Hillman DR
        • et al.
        Dyspnoea in COPD: can inspiratory muscle training help?.
        Aust J Physiother. 2004; 50: 169-180
        • Duruturk N
        • Acar M
        • Doğrul MI
        Effect of inspiratory muscle training in the management of patients with asthma.
        J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prevent. 2018; 38: 198-203
        • Villanueva İLU
        • Fernández PC
        • De-Diego-Cano B
        • et al.
        The effectiveness of combining inspiratory muscle training with manual therapy and a therapeutic exercise program on maximum inspiratory pressure in adults with asthma: a randomized clinical trial.
        Clin Rehabil. 2018; 32: 752-765
        • Silva IS
        • Guilherme AFF
        • Fernando ALD
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training for asthma.
        Cochr Database Systemat Rev. 2013; 8: 1-31
        • St Croix CM
        • Morgan BJ
        • Wetter TJ
        • et al.
        Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex sympathetic activation in humans.
        J Physiol. 2000; 529: 493-504
        • Shell AW
        • Derchak PA
        • Morgan BJ
        • et al.
        Fatiguing inspiratory muscle work causes reflex reduction in resting leg blood flow in humans.
        J Physiol. 2001; 537: 277-289
        • Lomax M
        • McConnell AK
        Inspiratory muscle fatigue in swimmers after a single 200m swim.
        J Sport Sci. 2003; 21: 659-664
        • Volianitis S
        • McConnell AK
        • Koutedakis Y
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 803-809
        • Romer LM
        • McConnell AK
        • Jones DA
        Effects of inspiratory muscle training on time-trial performance in trained cyclists.
        J Sport Sci. 2002; 20: 547-590
        • Lomax M
        • McConnell AK.
        Influence of prior activity (warm-up) and inspiratory muscle training upon between-and within-day reliability of maximal inspiratory pressure measurement.
        J Respir. 2009; 78: 197-202
        • Kilding AE
        • Brown S
        • McConnell AK
        Inspiratory muscle training improves 100 and 200 m swimming performance.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010; 108: 505-511
        • HajGhanbari B
        • Yamabayashi C
        • Buna TR
        • et al.
        Effects of respiratory muscle training on performance in athletes: a systematic review with meta-analyses.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27: 1643-1663https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318269f73f
        • Lacasse Y
        • Goldstein R
        • Lasserson TJ
        • et al.
        Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (review).
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006; https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003793.pub2
        • Ö Bostanci
        • H Mayda
        • Yılmaz C
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training improves pulmonary functions and respiratory muscle strength in healthy male smokers.
        Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2019; 264: 28-32
        • Griffin B
        • Woo P
        • Colton R
        • et al.
        Physiological characteristics of the supported singing voice. A preliminary study.
        J Voice. 1995; 9: 45-56
        • Herbst CT
        A review of singing voice subsystem interactions—toward an extended physiological model of “support”.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 13-19
        • Sonninen A
        • Laukkanen AM
        • Karma K
        • et al.
        Evaluation of support in singing.
        J Voice. 2005; 19: 223-237
        • Salomoni S
        • van den Hoorn W
        • Hodges P
        Breathing and singing: objective characterization of breathing patterns in classical singers.
        PLoS One. 2016;
        • Lewandowski A
        • Amanda I.G.
        The relationship between voice and breathing in the assessment and treatment of voice disorders.
        Perspect ASHA Spec Interest Grp March. 2016; 1: 94-104
        • Collyer S
        • Pamela J.Davis
        Fundamental frequency influences the relationship between sound pressure level and spectral balance in female classically trained singers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2009; 126: 396
        • Collyer S
        • Kenny TD
        • Archer M
        Listener perception of the effect of abdominal kinematic directives on respiratory behavior in female classical singing.
        J Voice. 2011; 25: 15-24
        • Tsai YC
        • Huang S
        • Che W
        • et al.
        The effects of expiratory muscle strength training on voice and associated factors in medical professionals with voice disorders.
        J Voice. 2016; 30: 21-27
        • Thomasson M
        Belly-in or belly-out? Effects of inhalatory behaviour and lung volume on voice function in male opera singers.
        TMH-QPSR. 2003; 45: 61-74
        • Zhang Z
        Cause-effect relationship between vocal fold physiology and voice production in a three-dimensional phonation model.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2016; 139: 1493
        • Mendes PA
        • Rothman HB
        • Sapienza C
        • et al.
        Effects of vocal training on the acoustic parameters of the singing voice.
        J Voice. 2003; 17: 529-543
        • Edgar J
        Is singing more difficult after eating a meal?.
        J Sing. 2007; 63: 431-439
        • Edgar J
        Effects of eating on professional and amateur singers for select pulmonary and vocal tasks.
        J Voice. 2008; 22: 721-726
        • Noriega MG
        Calentamiento vocal en profesionales de la voz Vocal warm up in voice professionals.
        Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología. 2010; 30: 100-105
        • Polat S
        Learner opınıons and the kınetıc extent of the learnıng outcomes about “polat vocal exercıses” wıth basıc elements of vocal traınıng and dıfferent sıngıng technıque.
        İnönü Univ J Cult Art. 2018; 4: 140-161
        • Schlossberg Max
        Daily Drills and Technical Studies for Cornet and Trumpet.
        Southern Music Co., San Antonio, Texas1952
        • Ternström S
        Physical and acoustic factors that interact with the singer to produce the choral sound.
        J Voice. 1991; 5: 128-143
        • Henrich N
        Mirroring the voice from garcia to the present day: some insights into singing voice registers.
        Log Phon Vocol. 2006; 31: 3-14
        • Reid Cornelius L
        Vocal mechanics.
        J Singing. 1997; 54: 15
        • Titze IR
        Phonation threshold pressure: a missing link in glottal aerodynamics.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1992; 91: 2926-2935
        • Kevin P
        • Philippe S
        • Alan HDW
        The effect of standing and sitting postures on breathing in brass players.
        PMC. 2014; 3: 210
        • Titze IR
        Workshop on Acoustic Voice Analysis. Summary Statement. National Center for Voice and Speech.
        1995: 6-30 (Iowa City)
        • American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society
        ATS/ERS statement on respiratory muscle testing.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002; 166: 518-624
        • Polkey MI
        • Green M
        • Moxham J
        Measurement of respiratory muscle strength.
        Thorax. 1995; 50: 1131
        • Kantarson J
        • Jalayondeja W
        • Chaunchaiyakul R
        • et al.
        Effect of respiratory muscles warm-up on exercise performance in sedentary subjects.
        J Med Technol Phys Ther. 2010; 22: 71-81
        • Anand S
        • El-Bashiti N
        • Sapienzaa C
        Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure.
        Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2012; 21: 380-386
        • Bailey SJ
        • Romer LM
        • Kelly J
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training enhances pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise tolerance in humans.
        J Appl Physiol. 2010; 109: 457-468
        • Wendy E.M.
        The effect of the breath builder™ on various lung functions and musical performance abilities of clarinet players.
        The Unıversıty Of Arızona, 2009: 38-44
        • Wingate JM
        • Brown WS
        • Shrivastav R
        • et al.
        Treatment outcomes for professional voice users.
        J Voice. 2007; 21: 433-449
        • Nam DH
        • Lim JY
        • Ahn CM
        • et al.
        Specially programed respiratory muscle trainning for singer by using respiratory muscle training device(Ultrabreathe).
        Yonsei Med J. 2004; 45: 810-817
        • Bouhuys A
        Lung volumes and breathing patterns in wind-instrument players.
        J Appl Physiol. 1964; 19: 967-975
        • Katayama K
        • Goto K
        • Shimizu K
        • et al.
        Effect of increased inspiratorymusclework on blood flow to inactive and active limbs during submaximal dynamic exercise.
        Exp Physiol. 2019; 104: 180-188
        • Witt JD
        • Guenette JA
        • Rupert JL
        • et al.
        Inspiratory muscle training attenuates the human respiratory muscle metaboreflex.
        J Physiol. 2007; 584: 1019-1028
        • Schutte HK
        Integrated aerodynamic measurements.
        J Voice. 1992; 6: 127-134
        • Sundberg J
        Breathing behavior during singing.
        STL-QPSR. 1992; 33: 49-64