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Formant Frequencies of Adult Speakers of Australian English and Effects of Sex, Age, Geographical Location, and Vowel Quality

  • Yeptain Leung
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yeptain Leung, MSLP, BMedSc, Department of Speech Pathology, Orthoptics and Audiology, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Affiliations
    Department of Speech Pathology, Orthoptics and Audiology, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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  • Jennifer Oates
    Affiliations
    Department of Speech Pathology, Orthoptics and Audiology, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, College of Science, Health and Engineering, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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  • Viktória Papp
    Affiliations
    School of Language, Social and Political Sciences, New Zealand Institute of Language, Brain and Behaviour, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
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  • Siew-Pang Chan
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

    Cardiovascular Research Institute, National University Heart Centre Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore

    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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Published:October 22, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2020.09.026

      Summary

      Aims

      The primary aim of this study was to provide normative formant frequency (F) values for male and female speakers of Australian English. The secondary aim was to examine the effects of speaker sex, age, vowel quality, and geographical location on F.

      Method

      The first three monophthong formant frequencies (F1, F2, and F3) for 244 female and 135 male speakers aged 18–60 years from a recent large-scale corpus of Australian English were analysed on a passage reading task.

      Results

      Mixed effects linear regression models suggested that speaker sex, speaker age, and vowel quality significantly predicted F1, F2, and F3 (P = 0.000). Effect sizes suggested that speaker sex and vowel quality contributed most to the variations in F1, F2, and F3 whereas speaker age and geographical location contributed a smaller amount.

      Conclusion

      Both clinicians and researchers are provided with normative F data for 18–60 year-old speakers of Australian English. Such data have increased internal and external validity relative to previous literature. F normative data for speakers of Australian English should be considered with reference to speaker sex and vowel but it may not be practically necessary to adjust for speaker age and geographical location.

      Key Words

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