Research Article| Volume 37, ISSUE 2, P152-161, March 2023

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Simulation of Vocal Loudness Regulation with Lung Pressure, Vocal Fold Adduction, and Source-Airway Interaction

  • Ingo R. Titze
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Ingo R. Titze National Center for Voice and Speech, University of Utah 1901 E. South Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84124.
    National Center for Voice and Speech, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah
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Published:January 13, 2021DOI:


      In speaking, shouting, and singing, vocal loudness is known to be regulated with lung pressure, but the degree to which vocal fold adduction and airway shape play a role in loudness control is less well known. When loudness is quantified in sones instead of sound pressure level (SPL), the regulatory mechanisms are even less obvious. Here it is shown computationally that loudness is insensitive to changes in SPL produced with variable adduction. A trade-off exists between a reduction in glottal flow amplitude and a flatter spectral slope. When the airway configuration is changed from a uniform tube to a “belt” or “call” shape, loudness can increase with a slight decrease in SPL. When the airway configuration is changed from a uniform tube to an operatic “ring” shape, loudness is increased with only a small increase in SPL.


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