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Automated quantification of inflection events in the electroglottographic signal

      Certain aspects of the contacting and decontacting phases of the vocal folds can be analyzed indirectly through the electroglottographic (EGG
      The acronym EGG will be used throughout this article to refer to electroglottography, electroglottogram and electroglottographic (signal) indistinctly. In each appearance, the meaning will derive from the context.
      ) signal. Since 1957
      • Fabre P.
      Un procédé électrique percutané d’inscription de l’accolement glottique au cours de la phonation.
      EGG has been widely used in the clinic and in voice research given that it provides information regarding the contact area of the vocal folds during phonation
      • Hampala V.
      • García M.
      • Svec J.G.
      • Scherer R.C.
      • Herbst C.T.
      Relationship between the electroglottographic signal and vocal fold contact area.
      . Its main quantitative parameters: contact quotient [
      • Echternach M.
      • Döllinger M.
      • Köberlein M.
      • Kuranova L.
      • Gellrich D.
      • Kainz M.-A.
      Vocal fold oscillation pattern changes related to loudness in patients with vocal fold mass lesions.
      ,
      • Ning L.
      The effects of age and pitch level on electroglottographic measures during sustained phonation.
      ,
      • Tan K.G.O.
      Contact quotient of female singers singing four pitches for five vowels in normal and pressed phonations.
      ,
      • Awan S.N.
      • Krauss A.R.
      • Herbst C.T.
      An examination of the relationship between electroglottographic contact quotient, electroglottographic decontacting phase profile, and acoustical spectral moments.
      ,
      • Herbst C.T.
      • Schutte H.
      • Bowling D.
      • Svec J.G.
      Comparing chalk with cheese-the egg contact quotient is only a limited surrogate of the closed quotient.
      ,
      • Herbst C.T.
      • Ternstrom S.
      A comparison of different methods to measure the EGG contact quotient.
      ,
      • Guzmán M.
      • Castro C.
      • Madrid S.
      • Olavarría C.
      • Leiva M.
      • Muñoz D.
      • et al.
      Air pressure and contact quotient measures during different semioccluded postures in subjects with different voice conditions.
      ], open quotient [
      • Echternach M.
      • Döllinger M.
      • Köberlein M.
      • Kuranova L.
      • Gellrich D.
      • Kainz M.-A.
      Vocal fold oscillation pattern changes related to loudness in patients with vocal fold mass lesions.
      ,
      • Ning L.
      The effects of age and pitch level on electroglottographic measures during sustained phonation.
      ,
      • Hashimoto P.T.
      • Pagan-Neves L.d.O.
      • Jesus L.M.T.d.
      • Wertzner H.F.
      Aerodynamic, eletroglottographic and acoustic measures of the voiced postalveolar fricative.
      ,
      • Yokonishi H.
      • Imagawa H.
      • Sakakibara K.-I.
      • Yamauchi A.
      • Nito T.
      • Yamasoba T.
      • et al.
      Relationship of various open quotients with acoustic property, phonation types, fundamental frequency, and intensity.
      ,
      • Krasnodebska P.
      • Szkielkowska A.
      • Miaskiewicz B.
      • Skarzynski H.
      Characteristics of euphony in direct and indirect mucosal wave imaging techniques.
      ] and fundamental frequency estimation [
      • Herbst C.T.
      • Dunn J.C.
      Fundamental frequency estimation of low-quality electroglottographic signals.
      ,
      • Larson B.
      • Herbst C.T.
      • Hunter E.
      Egg wavegram python source code tutorial.
      ,
      • Vlot C.
      • Ogawa M.
      • Hosokawa K.
      • Iwahashi T.
      • Kato C.
      • Inohara H.
      Investigation of the immediate effects of humming on vocal fold vibration irregularity using electroglottography and high-speed laryngoscopy in patients with organic voice disorders.
      ,
      • Palaparthi A.
      • Maxfield L.
      • Titze I.R.
      Estimation of source-filter interaction regions based on electroglottography.
      ,
      • Svec J.G.
      • Popolo P.S.
      • Titze I.R.
      Measurement of vocal doses in speech: experimental procedure and signal processing.
      ] have been widely used in research studies and in the voice clinic. There has been a significant increase in related publications in recent years with a so called “golden era” in the beginning and middle of the 1990s, as described in a thorough recent review on EGG conducted by Herbst
      • Herbst C.T.
      Electroglottography - an update.
      .
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        Contact quotient of female singers singing four pitches for five vowels in normal and pressed phonations.
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