Advertisement

Characterization of Source-Filter Interactions in Vocal Vibrato Using a Neck-Surface Vibration Sensor: A Pilot Study

  • Author Footnotes
    a Present Address: Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin, 2504 A Whitis Avenue, A1100, Austin, TX 78712.
    Rosemary A. Lester-Smith
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Rosemary A. Lester-Smith, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin, 2504 A Whitis Avenue, A1100, Austin, TX 78712.
    Footnotes
    a Present Address: Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin, 2504 A Whitis Avenue, A1100, Austin, TX 78712.
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
    Search for articles by this author
  • Elaina Derrick
    Affiliations
    Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
    Search for articles by this author
  • Charles R. Larson
    Affiliations
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    a Present Address: Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin, 2504 A Whitis Avenue, A1100, Austin, TX 78712.
Published:October 11, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2021.08.004

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Vocal vibrato is a singing technique that involves periodic modulation of fundamental frequency (fo) and intensity. The physiological sources of modulation within the speech mechanism and the interactions between the laryngeal source and vocal tract filter in vibrato are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation could be captured using simultaneously recorded signals from a neck-surface vibration sensor and a microphone, which represent features of the source before and after supraglottal vocal tract filtering.

      Method

      Nine classically-trained singers produced sustained vowels with vibrato while simultaneous signals were recorded using a vibration sensor and a microphone. Acoustical analyses were performed to measure the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation for each trial. Paired-samples sign tests were used to analyze differences between the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation in the vibration sensor and microphone signals.

      Results

      The rate and extent of fo modulation and the extent of intensity modulation were equivalent in the vibration sensor and microphone signals, but the rate of intensity modulation was significantly higher in the microphone signal than in the vibration sensor signal. Larger differences in the rate of intensity modulation were seen with vowels that typically have smaller differences between the first and second formant frequencies.

      Conclusions

      This study demonstrated that the rate of intensity modulation at the source prior to supraglottal vocal tract filtering, as measured in neck-surface vibration sensor signals, was lower than the rate of intensity modulation after supraglottal vocal tract filtering, as measured in microphone signals. The difference in rate varied based on the vowel. These findings provide further support of the resonance-harmonics interaction in vocal vibrato. Further investigation is warranted to determine if differences in the physiological source(s) of vibrato account for inconsistent relationships between the extent of intensity modulation in neck-surface vibration sensor and microphone signals.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Prame E.
        Measurements of the vibrato rate of ten singers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1994; 96: 1979-1984
        • Ramig L.A.
        • Shipp T.
        Comparative measures of vocal tremor and vocal vibrato.
        J Voice. 1987; 1: 162-167
        • Seidner W.
        • Nawka T.
        • Cebulla M.
        Dependence of the vibrato on pitch, musical intensity, and vowel in different voice classes.
        in: Dejonckere P.H. Hirano M. Sundberg J. Vibrato. Singular Publishing Group, Inc, San Diego, CA1995: 63-82
        • Shipp T.
        • Leanderson R.
        • Sundberg J.
        Some acoustic characteristics of vocal vibrato.
        J Res Sing. 1980; 4: 18-25
        • Sundberg J.
        Acoustic and psychoacoustic aspects of vocal vibrato.
        in: Dejonckere P.H. Hirano M. Sundberg J. Vibrato. Singular Publishing Group, Inc, San Diego, CA1995: 35-62
        • Hirano M.
        • Hibi S.
        • Hagino S
        Physiological aspects of vibrato.
        in: Dejonckere P.H. Hirano M. Sundberg J. Vibrato. Singular Publishing Group, Inc, San Diego, CA1995: 9-33
        • Niimi S.
        • Horiguchi S.
        • Kobayashi N.
        • et al.
        Electromyographic study of vibrato and tremolo in singing.
        Voice Production, Mechanisms and Functions. 1988; : 403-414
        • Horii Y.
        Acoustic analysis of vocal vibrato: A theoretical interpretation of data.
        J Voice. 1989; 3: 36-43
        • Rothenberg M.
        • Miller D.
        • Molitor R.
        Aerodynamic investigation of sources of vibrato.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1988; 40: 244-260
        • Nandamudi S.
        • Scherer R.C.
        Airflow vibrato: Dependence on pitch and loudness.
        J Voice. 2019; 33: 815-830
        • Chiba T.
        • Kajiyama M.
        The vowel: Its nature and structure.
        Phonetic Society of Japan, Tokoyo, Japan1958
        • Fant G.
        The acoustic theory of speech production.
        The Hague, Moulton1960
        • Maxfield L.
        • Palaparthi A.
        • Titze I.
        New evidence that nonlinear source-filter coupling affects harmonic intensity and fo stability during instances of harmonics crossing formants.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 149-156
        • Titze I.
        • Riede T.
        • Popolo P.
        Nonlinear source–filter coupling in phonation: Vocal exercises.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2008; 123: 1902-1915
        • Titze I.R.
        Nonlinear source–filter coupling in phonation: Theorya).
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2008; 123: 2733-2749
        • Herbst C.T.
        Electroglottography–an update.
        J Voice. 2020; 34: 503-526
        • Dromey C.
        • Reese L.
        • Hopkin J.A.
        Laryngeal-level amplitude modulation in vibrato.
        J Voice. 2009; 23: 156-163
        • Askenfelt A.
        • Gauffin J.
        • Sundberg J.
        • et al.
        A comparison of contact microphone and electroglottograph for the measurement of vocal fundamental frequency.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1980; 23: 258-273
        • Coleman R.F.
        Comparison of microphone and neck-mounted accelerometer monitoring of the performing voice.
        J Voice. 1988; 2: 200-205
        • Hillman R.E.
        • Heaton J.T.
        • Masaki A.
        • et al.
        Ambulatory monitoring of disordered voices.
        Ann Otol, Rhinol Laryngol. 2006; 115: 795-801
        • Švec J.G.
        • Titze I.R.
        • Popolo P.S.
        Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2005; 117: 1386-1394
        • Mehta D.D.
        • Van Stan J.H.
        • Hillman R.E.
        Relationships between vocal function measures derived from an acoustic microphone and a subglottal neck-surface accelerometer.
        IEEE/ACM transact audio, speech, language process. 2016; 24: 659-668
        • Mehta D.D.
        • Espinoza V.M.
        • Van Stan J.H.
        • et al.
        The difference between first and second harmonic amplitudes correlates between glottal airflow and neck-surface accelerometer signals during phonation.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2019; 145: EL386-EL392
        • Brown J.R.
        • Simonson J.
        Organic voice tremor: A tremor of phonation.
        Neurology. 1963; 13: 520-525
        • Hachinski V.C.
        • Thomsen I.V.
        • Buch N.H.
        The nature of primary vocal tremor.
        Canadian J Neurol Sci. 1975; 2: 195-197
        • Koda J.
        • Ludlow C.L.
        An evaluation of laryngeal muscle activation in patients with voice tremor.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992; 107: 684-696
        • Sulica L.
        • Louis E.D.
        Clinical characteristics of essential voice tremor: a study of 34 cases.
        Laryngoscope. 2010; 120: 516-528
        • Cler G.J.
        • McKenna V.S.
        • Dahl K.L.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal case study of transgender voice changes under testosterone hormone therapy.
        J Voice. 2020; 34: 748-762
        • Austin S.F.
        • Titze I.R.
        The effect of subglottal resonance upon vocal fold vibration.
        J Voice. 1997; 11: 391-402
        • Lehoux H.
        • Hampala V.
        • Švec J.G.
        Subglottal pressure oscillations in anechoic and resonant conditions and their influence on excised larynx phonations.
        Sci Rep. 2021; 11: 1-14
        • Zhang Z.
        • Neubauer J.
        • Berry D.A.
        The influence of subglottal acoustics on laboratory models of phonation.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2006; 120: 1558-1569
        • Lester-Smith R.A.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Hilger A.
        • et al.
        Auditory-motor control of fundamental frequency in vocal vibrato.
        J Voice. 2021;
        • Lester R.A.
        • Barkmeier-Kraemer J.
        • Story B.H.
        Physiologic and acoustic patterns of essential vocal tremor.
        J Voice. 2013; 27: 422-432
        • Patel R.R.
        • Awan S.N.
        • Barkmeier-Kraemer J.
        • et al.
        Recommended protocols for instrumental assessment of voice: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association expert panel to develop a protocol for instrumental assessment of vocal function.
        Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2018; 27: 887-905
        • Šrámková H.
        • Granqvist S.
        • Herbst C.T.
        • et al.
        The softest sound levels of the human voice in normal subjects.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2015; 137: 407-418
        • Kent R.D.
        • Vorperian H.K.
        Static measurements of vowel formant frequencies and bandwidths: A review.
        J Commun Disord. 2018; 74: 74-97
        • Peterson G.E.
        • Barney H.L.
        Control methods used in a study of the vowels.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1952; 24: 175-184
        • Herbst C.T.
        • Hertegard S.
        • Zangger-Borch D.
        • et al.
        Freddie Mercury—acoustic analysis of speaking fundamental frequency, vibrato, and subharmonics.
        Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. 2017; 42: 29-38
        • Barkmeier-Kraemer J.
        • Lato A.
        • Wiley K.
        Development of a speech treatment program for a client with essential vocal tremor.
        Semin Speech Lang. 2011; 32: 43-57
      1. Svec, J. G., Granqvist, S. (2010). Guidelines for selecting microphones for human voice production research.

        • Marks K.L.
        • Lin J.Z.
        • Burns J.A.
        • et al.
        Estimation of subglottal pressure from neck surface vibration in patients with voice disorders.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2020; 63: 2202-2218
        • Adler C.H.
        • Bansberg S.F.
        • Hentz J.G.
        • et al.
        Botulinum toxin type A for treating voice tremor.
        Arch Neurol. 2004; 61: 1416-1420
        • Gurey L.E.
        • Sinclair C.F.
        • Blitzer A.
        A new paradigm for the management of essential vocal tremor with botulinum toxin.
        Laryngoscope. 2013; 123: 2497-2501
        • Bové M.
        • Daamen N.
        • Rosen C.
        • et al.
        Development and validation of the vocal tremor scoring system.
        Laryngoscope. 2006; 116: 1662-1667
        • Hemmerich A.L.
        • Finnegan E.M.
        • Hoffman H.T.
        The distribution and severity of tremor in speech structures of persons with vocal tremor.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 366-377
        • Hixon T.J.
        • Hoit J.D.
        Physical examination of the abdominal wall by the speech-language pathologist.
        Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 1999; 8: 335-346
        • Hixon T.J.
        • Hoit J.D.
        Physical examination of the rib cage wall by the speech-language pathologist.
        Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2000; 9: 179-196
      2. Hixon, T. J., Hoit, J. D. (2006). A clinical method for the detection and quantification of quick respiratory hyperkinesia.