Advertisement

Laryngeal and Acoustic Analysis of Chest and Head Registers Extended Across a Three-Octave Range: A Case Study

      Summary

      Voice registers are assumed to be related to different laryngeal adjustments, but objective evidence has been insufficient. While chest register is usually associated with the lower pitch range, and head register with the higher pitch range, here we investigated a professional singer who claimed an ability to produce both these registers at every pitch, throughout her entire singing range. The singer performed separated phonations alternating between the two registers (further called chest-like and head-like) at all pitches from C3 (131 Hz) to C6 (1047 Hz). We monitored the vocal fold vibrations using high-speed video endoscopy and electroglottography. The microphone sound was recorded and used for blind listening tests performed by the three authors (insiders) and by six “naive” participants (outsiders). The outsiders correctly identified the registers in 64% of the cases, and the insiders in 89% of the cases. Objective analysis revealed larger closed quotient and vertical phase differences for the chest-like register within the lower range below G4 (<392 Hz), and also a larger closed quotient at the membranous glottis within the higher range above Bb4 (>466 Hz), but not between Ab4-A4 (415-440 Hz). The normalized amplitude quotient was consistently lower in the chest-like register throughout the entire range. The results indicate that that the singer employed subtle laryngeal control mechanisms for the chest-like and head-like phonations on top of the traditionally recognized low-pitched chest and high-pitched head register phenomena. Across all pitches, the chest-like register was produced with more rapid glottal closure that was usually, but not necessarily, accompanied also by stronger adduction of membranous glottis. These register changes were not always easily perceivable by listeners, however.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Stark JA.
        BelCanto: A History of Vocal Pedagogy.
        University of Toronto Press, Toronto/Buffalo/London1999
        • Mörner M
        • Fransson F
        • Fant G.
        Voice register terminology and standard pitch.
        STL-QPSR. 1963; 4: 17-23
        • Švec JG
        • Schutte HK
        • Miller DG.
        On pitch jumps between chest and falsetto registers in voice: data from living and excised human larynges.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1999; 106: 1523-1531
        • Hollien H.
        On vocal registers.
        J Phon. 1974; 2: 125-143
        • Roubeau B
        • Henrich N
        • Castellengo M.
        Laryngeal vibratory mechanisms: the notion of vocal register revisited.
        J Voice. 2009; 23: 425-438
        • Hirano M
        • Vennard W
        • Ohala J.
        Regulation of register, pitch and intensity of voice. An electromyographic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1970; : 22
        • Baer T
        • Gay T
        • Niimi S.
        Control of fundamental frequency, intensity and register of phonation.
        Haskins Laborat Status Rep Speech Res. 1976; 45: 175-185
        • Kochis-Jennings KA
        • Finnegan EM
        • Hoffman HT
        • et al.
        Laryngeal muscle activity and vocal fold adduction during chest, chestmix, headmix, and head registers in females.
        J Voice. 2012; 26: 182-193
        • Kochis-Jennings KA
        • Finnegan EM
        • Hoffman HT
        • et al.
        Cricothyroid muscle and thyroarytenoid muscle dominance in vocal register control: preliminary results.
        J Voice. 2014; 28: 652.e621-652.e629
        • Henrich N
        • Roubeau B
        • Castellengo M.
        On the use of electroglottography for characterisation of the laryngeal mechanisms.
        in: Proceedings of SMAC 2003, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference. 2. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden2003: 455-458
        • Roubeau B
        • Chevrie-Muller C
        • Arabia-Guidet C
        Electroglottographic study of the changes of voice registers.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1987; 39: 280-289
        • Lindestad P-Å
        • Södersten M.
        Laryngeal and pharyngeal behavior in countertenor and baritone singing—a videofiberscopic study.
        J Voice. 1988; 2: 132-139
        • Murry T
        • Xu JJ
        • Woodson GE.
        Glottal configuration associated with fundamental frequency and vocal register.
        J Voice. 1998; 12: 44-49
        • Švec JG
        • Sundberg J
        • Hertegard S.
        Three registers in an untrained female singer analyzed by videokymography, strobolaryngoscopy and sound spectrography.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2008; 123: 347-353
        • Echternach M
        • Burk F
        • Köberlein M
        • et al.
        The influence of vowels on vocal fold dynamics in the tenor's passaggio.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 424-429
        • Echternach M
        • Burk F
        • Köberlein M
        • et al.
        Oscillatory characteristics of the vocal folds across the tenor passaggio.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 381.e5-381.e14
        • Echternach M
        • Burk F
        • Köberlein M
        • et al.
        Laryngeal evidence for the first and second passaggio in professionally trained sopranos.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0175865
        • Echternach M
        • Dippold S
        • Richter B.
        High-speed imaging using rigid laryngoscopy for the analysis of register transitions in professional operatic tenors.
        Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2016; 41: 1-8
        • Echternach M
        • Dippold S
        • Sundberg J
        • et al.
        High-speed imaging and electroglottography measurements of the open quotient in untrained male voices' register transitions.
        J Voice. 2010; 24: 644-650
        • Kumada M
        • Kobayashi N
        • Hirose H
        • et al.
        Analysis of vocal fold vibration during register change by high speed digital imaging system.
        Forum Acusticum Sevilla 2002 (CD-ROM). Sociedad Espańola de Acústica, Madrid2002
        • Rubin HJ
        • Hirt CC.
        The falsetto. A high-speed cinematographic study.
        Laryngoscope. 1960; 70: 1305-1324
        • Zañartu M
        • Mehta DD
        • Ho JC
        • et al.
        Observation and analysis of in vivo vocal fold tissue instabilities produced by nonlinear source-filter coupling: a case study.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2011; 129: 326-339
      1. Webb M. Mal Webb Sideways Yodeling. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_6nNWX7TTI (accessed 2021).

        • Colton RH.
        Spectral characteristics of the modal and falsetto registers.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1972; 24: 337-344
      2. Titze IR.Principles of Voice Production (second printing): national center for voice and speech iowa city IA 52242; 2000.

        • Hirano M.
        Morphological structure of the vocal cord as a vibrator and its variations.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1974; 26: 89-94
        • Hirano M.
        Phonosurgery: basic and clinical investigations.
        Otologia (Fukuoka). 1975; 21: 239-242
        • Herbst CT
        • Qiu Q
        • Schutte HK
        • et al.
        Membranous and cartilaginous vocal fold adduction in singing.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2011; 129: 2253-2262
        • Herbst CT
        • Švec JG.
        Adjustment of glottal configurations in singing.
        J Sing. 2014; 70: 301-308
        • Titze IR.
        Theoretical analysis of maximum flow declination rate versus maximum area declination rate in phonation.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006; 49: 439-447
      3. The Audacity Team. Audacity: free audio editor and recorder. https://www.audacityteam.org/(accessed 2021).

        • Granqvist S.
        The visual sort and rate method for perceptual evaluation in listening tests.
        Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2003; 28: 109-116
      4. Granqvist S. Visor: visual sort and rate. http://www.tolvan.com/index.php?page=/visor/visor.php (accessed 2020).

      5. Herbst CT. CogBioCreateKymogram - A FIJI (ImageJ) plugin for creating videokymograms from high-speed movie data. http://www.christian-herbst.org/index.php?page=fiji (accessed 2021).

        • Novozámský A
        • Sedlář J
        • Zita A
        • et al.
        Image analysis of videokymographic data.
        in: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. IEEE, (ICIP)2015: 78-82
        • Gómez P
        • Kist AM
        • Schlegel P
        • et al.
        BAGLS, a multihospital benchmark for automatic glottis segmentation.
        Sci Data. 2020; 7: 1-12
        • Maryn Y
        • Verguts M
        • Demarsin H
        • et al.
        Intersegmenter variability in high-speed laryngoscopy-based glottal area waveform measures.
        Laryngoscope. 2020; 130: E654-E661
        • Kist AM
        • Gómez P
        • Dubrovskiy D
        • et al.
        A deep learning enhanced novel software tool for laryngeal dynamics analysis.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2021; 64: 1889-1903
        • Lohscheller J
        • Eysholdt U.
        Phonovibrogram visualization of entire vocal fold dynamics.
        Laryngoscope. 2008; 118: 753-758
        • Švec JG
        • Granqvist S.
        Tutorial and guidelines on measurement of sound pressure level in voice and speech.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2018; 61: 441-461
      6. Granqvist S, Švec JG. CalibrateVoiceSPL. Matlab scripts. http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/64231-calibratevoicespl (accessed June 2, 2020).

        • Sielska-Badurek EM
        • Jędra K
        • Sobol M
        • et al.
        Laryngeal stroboscopy—Normative values for amplitude, open quotient, asymmetry and phase difference in young adults.
        Clin Otolaryngol. 2019; 44: 158-165
        • Alku P
        • Bäckström T
        • Vilkman E.
        Normalized amplitude quotient for parametrization of the glottal flow.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2002; 112: 701-710
        • Vilkman E
        • Alku P
        • Vintturi J.
        Dynamic extremes of voice in the light of time domain parameters extracted from the amplitude features of glottal flow and its derivative.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2002; 54: 144-157
        • Jiang JJ
        • Chang CI
        • Raviv JR
        • et al.
        Quantitative study of mucosal wave via videokymography in canine larynges.
        Laryngoscope. 2000; 110: 1567-1573
        • Jiang JJ
        • Titze IR.
        A methodological study of hemilaryngeal phonation.
        Laryngoscope. 1993; 103: 872-882
        • Jiang JJ
        • Zhang Y
        • Kelly MP
        • et al.
        An automatic method to quantify mucosal waves via videokymography.
        Laryngoscope. 2008; 118: 1504-1510
        • Timcke R
        • von Leden H
        • Moore P.
        Laryngeal vibrations: measurements of the glottic wave: part I. The normal vibratory cycle.
        AMA Arch Otolaryngol. 1958; 68: 1-19
        • Holmberg EB
        • Hillman RE
        • Perkell JS.
        Glottal airflow and transglottal air pressure measurements for male and female speakers in soft, normal, and loud voice.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1988; 84: 511-529
        • Schlegel P
        • Stingl M
        • Kunduk M
        • et al.
        Dependencies and Ill-designed parameters within high-speed videoendoscopy and acoustic signal analysis.
        J Voice. 2019; 33: 811.e811-811.e812
        • Collyer S
        • Davis PJ
        • Thorpe CW
        • et al.
        Sound pressure level and spectral balance linearity and symmetry in the messa di voce of female classical singers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2007; 121: 1728-1736
        • Kreiman J
        • Gerratt BR
        • Antoñanzas-Barroso N.
        Measures of the glottal source spectrum.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007; 50: 595-610
        • Sundberg J.
        Objective characterization of phonation type using amplitude of flow glottogram pulse and of voice source fundamental.
        J Voice. 2022; 36: 4-14
        • Landis JR
        • Koch GG.
        The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
        Biometrics. 1977; : 159-174
        • Herbst CT
        • Schutte HK
        • Bowling DL
        • et al.
        Comparing chalk with cheese-the EGG contact quotient is only a limited surrogate of the closed quotient.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 401-409
        • Björklund S
        • Sundberg J.
        Relationship between subglottal pressure and sound pressure level in untrained voices.
        J Voice. 2016; 30: 15-20
        • Sundberg J
        • Andersson M
        • Hultqvist C.
        Effects of subglottal pressure variation on professional baritone singers’ voice sources.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1999; 105: 1965-1971
        • Sundberg J
        • Fahlstedt E
        • Morell A.
        Effects on the glottal voice source of vocal loudness variation in untrained female and male voices.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2005; 117: 879-885
        • Kumar SP
        • Švec JG.
        Kinematic model for simulating mucosal wave phenomena on vocal folds.
        Biomed Signal Process Control. 2019; 49: 328-337
        • Patel RR
        • Sundberg J
        • Gill B
        • et al.
        Glottal airflow and glottal area waveform characteristics of flow phonation in untrained vocally healthy adults.
        J Voice. 2022; 36 (140.e141-140.e121)
        • Herbst CT
        • Ternström S
        • Švec JG.
        Investigation of four distinct glottal configurations in classical singing—a pilot study.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2009; 125: EL104-EL109
        • Lamesch S
        • Doval B
        • Castellengo M.
        Experimental study of the frequency leap interval produced by the change of laryngeal vibratory mechanism during sustained notes.
        in: Bresin R Askenfelt A Proceedings of SMAC 2013, 4th Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden2013: 280-285
        • Miller DG
        • Švec JG
        • Schutte HK.
        Measurement of characteristic leap interval between chest and falsetto registers.
        J Voice. 2002; 16: 8-19