Advertisement

The Voice of Morality: The Two-Way Relationship Between the Beauty of Voice and Moral Goodness

  • Author Footnotes
    # The first two authors contributed equally to this work and are considered co-first author.
    Chenjing Wu
    Footnotes
    # The first two authors contributed equally to this work and are considered co-first author.
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # The first two authors contributed equally to this work and are considered co-first author.
    Xiaoling Liang
    Footnotes
    # The first two authors contributed equally to this work and are considered co-first author.
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yan Duan
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Lulu Gong
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Wei Zhang
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Mingcheng He
    Affiliations
    College of Education Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Yiting Ouyang
    Affiliations
    School of psychology, The University of Melbourne, VIC, 3010
    Search for articles by this author
  • Xianyou He
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Xianyou He, Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.
    Affiliations
    Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    # The first two authors contributed equally to this work and are considered co-first author.

      Summary

      Background

      Morality is a point of great concern to us in our social interactions. We also assess people's morality based on a variety of external factors. Research has found that the beauty of faces can influence people's moral assessments, and that moral assessments can in turn influence our judgments about the beauty of faces. In real life, the voice is a very important communication mediu. People can gain knowledge of individuals through their voices. However, the relationship between voice beauty and moral goodness has never been investigated.

      Objectives

      So, the present study investigated the two-way relationship between voice beauty and moral goodness traits during impression formation.

      Method

      We collected empirical data from 32 college students in China followed the impression formation paradigm in Experiment 1 and collected empirical data from 32 college students in China followed moral priming paradigm.

      Results

      The results of Experiment 1 showed that high attractive voices were more likely to be judged to have higher moral goodness levels. Conversely, the results of Experiment 2 showed that the moral priming condition revealed a higher score for the voice than the immoral condition. The results showed that the bidirectional validation of voice beauty-moral goodness was significant, that is, participants tend to rate high attractive voices with higher moral goodness levels, and rate moral people’s voices with higher beauty.

      Conclusion

      Based on these results, we found a two-way relationship between the beauty of voice and morality, and once again demonstrated the role of voice in message transmission.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Bartsch S
        “What sounds beautiful is good?” How employee vocal attractiveness affects customer’s evaluation of the voice-to-voice service encounter.
        Aktuelle Forschungsfragen im Dienstleistungsmarketing. Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden2008: 45-68
        • DeGroot T
        • Kluemper D
        Evidence of predictive and incremental validity of personality factors, vocal attractiveness and the situational interview.
        Int J Select Assess. 2007; 15: 30-39https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2389.2007.00365.x
        • Tigue CC
        • Borak DJ
        • O'Connor JJM
        • et al.
        Voice pitch influences voting behavior.
        Evol Hum Behav. 2012; 33: 210-216https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.09.004
        • Haidt J
        The new synthesis in moral psychology.
        Science. 2007; 316: 998-1002
        • Kant I
        Critique of the Power of Judgment.
        Cambridge University Press, New York2000
        • Greene JD
        The rat-a-gorical imperative: Moral intuition and the limits of affective learning.
        Cognition. 2017; 167: 66-77https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.03.004
        • Greene JD
        The secret joke of Kant’s soul.
        in: Sinnott-Armstrong W. Moral Psychology, Vol. 3. The Neuroscience Of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development. MIT Press, Cambridge2008: 35-80
        • Haidt J
        • Bjorklund F
        Social intuitionists answer six questions about moral psychology.
        in: Sinnott-Armstrong W. Moral Psychology, Vol. 2. The Cognitive Science Of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. MIT Press, Cambridge2008: 181-217
        • Haidt J
        The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment.
        Psychol Rev. 2001; 108: 814-834https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-295X.108.4.814
        • Chen L
        • Zhao L
        • Wang H
        An empirical study on relationship of positive emotion and aesthetic experience.
        J Southwest China Normal Univ. 2012; 37: 152-158https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-5471.2012.10.031
        • Berlyne DE.
        Studies in the new experimental aesthetics.
        J Am Psychoanal Ass. 1997; 88: 520https://doi.org/10.2307/1421783
        • Cupchik GC
        • Vartanian O
        • Crawley A
        • et al.
        Viewing artworks: contributions of cognitive control and perceptual facilitation to aesthetic experience.
        Brain Cognition. 2009; 70: 84-91https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2009.01.003
        • Diessner R
        • Solom RC
        • Frost NK
        • et al.
        Engagement with beauty: appreciating natural, artistic, and moral beauty.
        J Psychol. 2008; 142: 303-329https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.142.3.303-332
        • Nadal M
        • Munar E
        • Capo MA
        • et al.
        Towards a framework for the study of the neural correlates of aesthetic preference.
        Spatial vision. 2008; 21: 379https://doi.org/10.1163/156856808784532653
        • Halit H
        • de Haan M
        • Johnson MH
        Modulation of event-related potentials by prototypical and atypical faces.
        Neuroreport. 2000; 11: 1871-1875https://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200006260-00014
        • Dion K
        • Berscheid E
        • Walster E
        What is beautiful is good.
        J Personal Soc Psychol. 1972; 24: 285-290https://doi.org/10.1037/H0033731
        • Langlois JH
        • Kalakanis L
        • Rubenstein AJ
        • et al.
        Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review.
        Psychol Bull. 2000; 126: 390https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.3.390
        • Gross AE
        • Crofton C
        What is good is beautiful.
        Sociometry. 1977; 40: 85-90https://doi.org/10.2307/3033549
        • Little AC
        • Burt DM
        • Perrett DI
        What is good is beautiful: Face preference reflects desired personality.
        Pers Indiv Differ. 2006; 41: 1107-1118https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.04.015
        • Jing W
        • Xia T
        • Xu L
        • et al.
        What is beautiful brings out what is good in you: the effect of facial attractiveness on individuals' honesty.
        Int J Psychol. 2017; 52: 197-204
        • Koenigs M
        • Young L
        • Adolphs R
        • et al.
        Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements.
        Nature. 2007; 446: 908-911https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05631
        • Tsukiura T
        • Cabeza R
        Remembering beauty: roles of orbitofrontal and hippocampal regions in successful memory encoding of attractive faces.
        Neuroimage. 2011; 54: 653-660https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.07.046
        • Wheatley T
        • Haidt J
        Hypnotic disgust makes moral judgments more severe.
        Psychol Sci. 2005; 16: 780-784https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01614.x
        • Fraccaro PJ
        • O'Connor JJ
        • Re DE
        • et al.
        Faking it: deliberately altered voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.
        Anim Behav. 2013; 85: 127-136https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.10.016
        • Hughes SM
        • Mogilski JK
        • Harrison MA
        The perception and parameters of intentional voice manipulation.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 2014; 38: 107-127https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-013-0163-z
        • Hughes SM
        • Farley SD
        • Rhodes BC
        Vocal and physiological changes in response to the physical attractiveness of conversational partners.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 2010; 34: 155-167https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-010-0087-9
        • Leongómez JD.
        • Binter J
        • Kubicová L
        • et al.
        Vocal modulation during courtship increases proceptivity even in naive listeners.
        Evol Hum Behav. 2014; 35: 489-496https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.06.008
        • Pisanski K
        • Oleszkiewicz A
        • Plachetka J
        • et al.
        Voice pitch modulation in human mate choice.
        P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci. 2018; 285 (20181634)https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1634
        • Belin P
        • Fecteau S
        • Bedard C
        Thinking the voice: neural correlates of voice perception.
        Trends Cogn Sci. 2004; 8: 129-135https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.01.008
        • Addington DW
        The relationship of selected vocal characteristics to personality perception.
        Speech Monographs. 1968; 35: 492-503https://doi.org/10.1080/03637756809375599
        • AIIport GW
        • Cantril H
        Judging personality from voice.
        J Soc Psychol. 1934; 5: 37-54https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1934.9921582
        • Zuckerman M
        • Driver RE
        What sounds beautiful is good: the vocal attractiveness stereotype.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 1989; 13: 67-82https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00990791
        • Guyer JJ
        • Fabrigar LR
        • Vaughan-Johnston TI
        Speech rate, intonation, and pitch: investigating the bias and cue efects of vocal confdence on persuasion.
        Pers Soc Psychol B. 2018; 45: 389-405https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218787805
        • Pisanski K
        • Bryant GA
        The evolution of voice perception.
        in: Eidsheim NS Meizel KL The Oxford Handbook of Voice Studies. Oxford University Press, 2019: 268-300https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199982295.013.29
        • Andreasen NC
        Acoustic analysis: An objective measure of afective fattening.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1981; 38: 281-285https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780280049005
        • Halberstadt AG
        Family expressiveness styles and nonverbal communication skills.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 1983; 8: 14-26https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00986327
        • Kreiman J
        • Sidtis D
        Voices and listeners: toward a model of voice perception.
        Acoustics Today. 2011; 7: 7-15https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3684228
        • Sorokowski P
        • Puts D
        • Johnson J
        • et al.
        Voice of authority: professionals lower their vocal frequencies when giving expert advice.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 2019; 43: 257-269https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-019-00307-0
        • Apple W
        • Streeter LA
        • Krauss RM
        Effects of pitch and speech rate on personal attributions.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1979; 37: 715-727https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.5.715
        • Bond RN
        • Welkowitz J
        • Goldschmidt H
        • et al.
        Vocal frequency and person perception: effects of perceptual salience and nonverbal sensitivity.
        J Psycholinguistic Res. 1987; 16: 335-350https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01069287
        • Chebat JC
        • Hedhli KE
        • Gélinas-Chebat C
        • et al.
        Voice and persuasion in a banking telemarketing context.
        Percept Motor Skill. 2007; 104: 419-437https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.104.2.419-437
        • Degroot T
        • Kluemper D
        Evidence of predictive and incremental validity of personality factors, vocal attractiveness and the situational interview.
        Int J Select Assess. 2010; 15: 30-39
        • Schroeder J
        • Epley N
        The sound of intellect: speech reveals a thoughtful mind, increasing a job candidate’s appeal.
        Psychol Sci. 2015; 26: 877-891https://doi.org/10.1177/09567
        • Zhang H
        • Liu M
        • Li W
        • et al.
        Human voice attractiveness processing: electrophysiological evidence.
        Biol Psychol. 2020; 150107827https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.107827
        • Feinberg DR.
        Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2004; 115 (2609): 2609https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4784735
        • Jünger J
        • Motta-Mena NV
        • Cardenas R
        • et al.
        Do women’s preferences for masculine voices shift across the ovulatory cycle?.
        Horm Behav. 2018; 106: 122-134https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/k9y7s
        • Guyer JJ
        • Fabrigar LR
        • Vaughan-Johnston TI
        Speech rate, intonation, and pitch: investigating the bias and cue effects of vocal confidence on persuasion.
        Pers Soc Psychol B. 2019; : 1-17https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218787805
        • Guyer JJ
        • Briol P
        • Vaughan-Johnston TI
        • et al.
        Paralinguistic features communicated through voice can affect appraisals of confidence and evaluative judgments.
        J Nonverbal Behav. 2021; 45: 479-504https://doi.org/10.1007/s10919-021-00374-2
        • Ru T
        • Fan R
        • Chen Q
        • et al.
        Electrophysiological correlates of processing female facial attractiveness and its influence on male honesty.
        J Psychol Sci. 2017; 40: 1428-1432https://doi.org/10.16719/j.cnki.1671-6981.20170623
        • Degroot T
        • Aime F
        • Johnson SG
        • et al.
        Does talking the talk help walking the walk? An examination of the effect of vocal attractiveness in leader effectiveness.
        Leadership Quarterly. 2011; 22: 680-689https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.05.008
        • Dutton D
        The art instinct: beauty, pleasure, and human evolution. 2009; 29: 349-350https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6245.2009.01363_1.x
        • Kim WH
        • Choi JH
        • Lee JS
        Objectivity and subjectivity in aesthetic quality assessment of digital photographs.
        IEEE Trans Affective Comput. 2020; 11 (1): 1https://doi.org/10.1109/TAFFC.2018.2809752
        • Haidt HJ
        • Joseph C
        The moral mind: How five sets of innate intuitions guide the development of many culture-specific virtues, and perhaps even modules.
        The innate mind. 2008; 3: 367-391https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195332834.003.0019