Advertisement

Validation of Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI) in the South Indian Population

  • T. Jayakumar
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Associate Professor Speech Sciences, Department of Speech-Language Sciences, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.
    Affiliations
    Associate Professor Speech Sciences, Department of Speech-Language Sciences, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author
  • Jesnu Jose Benoy
    Affiliations
    Junior Research Fellow, Department of Speech-Language Sciences, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Karnataka, India
    Search for articles by this author

      Summary

      Background

      Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI) is an acoustic model which equates to the auditory-perceptual (A-P) measure of breathiness. Globally, ABI has been validated in multiple languages. To date, empirical studies validating ABI in the South Indian population have not been carried out. Moreover, there is only minimal evidence on the impact of language and gender on ABI.

      Objectives

      This study attempted to validate ABI in languages of Malayalam and Kannada with “B” and “G” of GRBAS. The authors also examined the influence of language and gender on ABI.

      Methods

      The authors retrospectively analyzed a dataset consisting of 160 voice samples (91 normophonic and 69 dysphonic). Five speech-language pathologists perceptually evaluated these samples on the GRBAS scale. PRAAT software was used to calculate ABI for each voice sample. The authors also determined the effects of language and gender on ABI. Following this, ABI's concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy were examined relating to “B” and “G” of the GRBAS scale.

      Results

      The judges reached a moderate agreement on the perceptual evaluation of voice quality. The authors observed neither language nor gender differences in ABI. The concurrent validity of ABI was strong (r = 0.761) when correlated against “B”. Further, evaluations revealed that an ABI value of >3.66 could distinguish between breathy and non-breathy voice samples with an area under the curve of 0.816 (Sensitivity = 61.73%; Specificity = 94.93%). On the other hand, the concurrent validity of ABI in correlation with “G” did not yield the optimal result.

      Conclusions

      ABI is a valid acoustic tool for identifying breathiness in the languages of Malayalam and Kannada. ABI correlates better with “B” than “G” on the GRBAS scale. ABI is independent of language and gender.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ferrand CT.
        Voice disorders: scope of theory and practice. 2nd ed.
        Pearson Education, 2019
        • Paz KE da S
        • de Almeida AAF
        • Almeida LNA
        • et al.
        Auditory perception of roughness and breathiness by dysphonic women.
        J Voice. 2022; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2022.01.005
        • Kreiman J
        • Gerratt BR
        • Kempster GB
        • et al.
        Perceptual evaluation of voice quality: review, tutorial, and a framework for future research.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1993; 36: 21-40https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr. 3601.21
        • Oates J.
        Auditory-perceptual evaluation of disordered voice quality.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2009; 61: 49-56https://doi.org/10.1159/000200768
        • Batthyany C
        • Maryn Y
        • Trauwaen I
        • et al.
        A case of specificity: how does the acoustic voice quality index perform in normophonic subjects?.
        Appl Sci. 2019; 9: 2527https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122527
        • Carding P
        • Carlson E
        • Epstein R
        • et al.
        Formal perceptual evaluation of voice quality in the United Kingdom.
        Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. 2000; 25: 133-138https://doi.org/10.1080/14015430050175860
        • Kempster GB
        • Gerratt BR
        • Verdolini Abbott K
        • et al.
        Consensus auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice: development of a standardized clinical protocol.
        Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2009; 18: 124-132https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2008/08-0017
        • Hirano M.
        Psycho-acoustic evaluation of voice: GRBAS scale for evaluating the hoarse voice.
        in: Hirano M Clinical Examination of Voice. Springer-Verlag, 1981: 81-84
        • Ghio A
        • Revis J
        • Smithson-Barrière D
        • et al.
        Reliability and correlations between overall severity, roughness and breathiness in the perception of dysphonic voices: investigating cognitive aspects.
        J Voice. 2021; 0https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2021.07.010
        • Dejonckere PH
        • Remacle M
        • Fresnel-Elbaz E
        • et al.
        Differentiated perceptual evaluation of pathological voice quality: reliability and correlations with acoustic measurements.
        Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1996; 117: 219-224
        • van Borsel J
        • Janssens J
        • de Bodt M.
        Breathiness as a feminine voice characteristic: a perceptual approach.
        J Voice. 2009; 23: 291-294https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JVOICE.2007.08.002
        • Hejná M
        • Šturm P
        • Tylečková L
        • et al.
        Normophonic breathiness in Czech and Danish: are females breathier than males?.
        J Voice. 2021; 35 (e1-498.e22): 498https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JVOICE.2019.10.019
        • v. Latoszek BB
        • Maryn Y
        • Gerrits E
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis: acoustic measurement of roughness and breathiness.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2018; 61: 298-323https://doi.org/10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0188
        • Lopes LW
        • Cavalcante DP
        • Costa PO da
        Severity of voice disorders: integration of perceptual and acoustic data in dysphonic patients.
        Codas. 2014; 26: 382-388https://doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/20142013033
        • Hillenbrand J
        • Cleveland RA
        • Erickson RL.
        Acoustic correlates of breathy vocal quality.
        J Speech Hear Res. 1994; 37: 769-778https://doi.org/10.1044/JSHR.3704.769
        • Carding PN
        • Wilson JA
        • MacKenzie K
        • et al.
        Measuring voice outcomes: state of the science review.
        J Laryngol Otol. 2009; 123: 823-829https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022215109005398
        • Wuyts FL
        • Bodt MS de
        • Molenberghs G
        • et al.
        The dysphonia severity index.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2000; 43: 796-809https://doi.org/10.1044/jslhr.4303.796
        • Maryn Y
        • Corthals P
        • van Cauwenberge P
        • et al.
        Toward improved ecological validity in the acoustic measurement of overall voice quality: combining continuous speech and sustained vowels.
        J Voice. 2010; 24: 540-555https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2008.12.014
        • Barsties B
        • Maryn Y.
        External validation of the acoustic voice quality index version 03.01 with extended representativity.
        Annal Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2016; 125: 571-583https://doi.org/10.1177/000348941663 6131
        • Awan SN
        • Solomon NP
        • Helou LB
        • et al.
        Spectral-cepstral estimation of dysphonia severity: external validation.
        Annal Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013; 122https://doi.org/10.1177/000348941312200108
        • Barsties v. Latoszek B
        • Maryn Y
        • Gerrits E
        • et al.
        The Acoustic Breathiness Index (ABI): a multivariate acoustic model for breathiness.
        J Voice. 2017; 31 (e11-511.e27): 511https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JVOICE.2016.11.017
        • Barsties B
        • Maryn Y.
        The improvement of internal consistency of the acoustic voice quality index.
        Am J Otolaryngol. 2015; 36: 647-656https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2015.04.012
        • Hosokawa K
        • von Latoszek BB
        • Ferrer-Riesgo CA
        • et al.
        Acoustic breathiness index for the Japanese-Speaking population: validation study and exploration of affecting factors.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2019; 62: 2617-2631https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-S-19-0077
        • Kim GH
        • von Latoszek BB
        • Lee YW.
        Validation of acoustic voice quality index version 3.01 and acoustic breathiness index in Korean population.
        J Voice. 2021; 35 (e9-660.e18): 660https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2019. 10.005
        • Delgado Hernández J
        • León Gómez NM
        • Jiménez A
        • et al.
        Validation of the acoustic voice quality index version 03.01 and the acoustic breathiness index in the Spanish language.
        Annal Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2018; 127: 317-326https://doi.org/10.1177/0003489418761096
        • Englert M
        • Barsties v
        • Latoszek B
        • et al.
        Validation of the acoustic breathiness index to the Brazilian Portuguese language.
        Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. 2021; (Published online January 6): 1-7https://doi.org/10.1080/14015439.2020.1864467
        • Barsties v. Latoszek B
        • Lehnert B
        • Janotte B.
        Validation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index Version 03.01 and Acoustic Breathiness Index in German.
        J Voice. 2020; 34 (e17-157.e25): 157https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice. 2018.07.026
        • Kim H
        • Gao S
        • Shi R
        • et al.
        Influence of gender and age on the Dysphonia Severity Index: a normative study in a Shanghainese population.
        Clin Linguist Phon. 2019; 33: 279-293https://doi.org/10.1080/02699206.2018.1508309
        • Barsties v. Latoszek B
        • Ulozaitė-Stanienė N
        • Maryn Y
        • et al.
        The influence of gender and age on the acoustic voice quality index and dysphonia severity index: a normative study.
        J Voice. 2019; 33: 340-345https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.11.011
        • Hakkesteegt MM
        • Brocaar MP
        • Wieringa MH
        • et al.
        Influence of age and gender on the dysphonia severity index.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2006; 58: 264-273https://doi.org/10.1159/000093183
        • Shabnam S
        • Pushpavathi M.
        Effect of gender on acoustic voice quality index 02.03 and dysphonia severity index in Indian normophonic adults.
        Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2021; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-021-02712-8
        • Jayakumar T
        • Benoy JJ
        • Yasin HM.
        Effect of age and gender on acoustic voice quality index across lifespan: a cross-sectional study in Indian population.
        J Voice. 2020; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice. 2020.05.025
        • Hosokawa K
        • Barsties B
        • Iwahashi T
        • et al.
        Validation of the acoustic voice quality index in the Japanese language.
        J Voice. 2017; 31 (e1-260.e9): 260https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.05.010
        • Englert M
        • Barsties Latoszek B
        • Behlau M
        Exploring the validity of acoustic measurements and other voice assessments.
        J Voice. 2021; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2021.12.014
        • Yiu EML
        • Murdoch B
        • Hird K
        • et al.
        Cultural and language differences in voice quality perception: a preliminary investigation using synthesized signals.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2008; 60: 107-119https://doi.org/10.1159/000119746
        • Lee SJ
        • Cho Y
        • Song JY
        • et al.
        Aging effect on Korean female voice: acoustic and perceptual examinations of breathiness.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2015; 67: 300-307https://doi.org/10.1159/000445290
        • Jayakumar T
        • Savithri SR.
        Effect of geographical and ethnic variation on dysphonia severity index: a study of Indian population.
        J Voice. 2012; 26: e11-e16https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.05.008
        • Koolagudi SG
        • Bharadwaj A
        • Srinivasa Murthy YV.
        • et al.
        Dravidian language classification from speech signal using spectral and prosodic features.
        Int J Speech Technol. 2017; 20: 1005-1016https://doi.org/10.1007/s10772-017-9466-5
        • Deliyski DD
        • Shaw HS
        • Evans MK.
        Adverse effects of environmental noise on acoustic voice quality measurements.
        J Voice. 2005; 19: 15-28https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2004.07.003
        • Boersma P.
        PRAAT, a system for doing phonetics by computer.
        Glot Int. 2001; 5: 341-345
      1. Mayer J. Praat Script Resources: GRBAS voice quality assessment. Published 2011. Accessed July 7, 2021. Available at: https://praatpfanne.lingphon.net/downloads/demo_GRBAS.txt

        • Jayakumar T
        • Rajasudhakar R
        • Benoy JJ.
        Comparison and Validation of Acoustic Voice Quality Index Version 2 and Version 3 among South Indian Population.
        J Voice. 2022; (Published online)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice. 2022.02.019
        • Maryn Y
        • de Bodt M
        • Roy N.
        The acoustic voice quality index: toward improved treatment outcomes assessment in voice disorders.
        J Commun Disord. 2010; 43: 161-174https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2009.12.004
        • Savithri SR
        • Jayaram M
        Rate of speech/reading in Dravidian languages.
        Journal of All India Institute of Speech and Hearing. 2008; 27 (44): 29-39
        • Shashidhar KN
        Analysis of Speech of Stutterers,Unpublished Master’s Dissertation.
        University of Mysore, Mysore1984
        • Landis JR
        • Koch GG.
        The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
        Biometrics. 1977; 33: 159-174
        • Schober P
        • Boer C
        • Schwarte LA.
        Correlation coefficients.
        Anesthesia Analgesia. 2018; 126: 1763-1768https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000 000002864
        • Akobeng AK.
        Understanding diagnostic tests 3: receiver operating characteristic curves.
        Acta Paediatr. 2007; 96: 644-647https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006.00178.x
        • Behlau M
        • Madazio G
        • Moreti F
        • et al.
        Efficiency and cutoff values of self-assessment instruments on the impact of a voice problem.
        J Voice. 2016; 30 (e9-506.e18): 506https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2015.05. 022
        • Ruopp MD
        • Perkins NJ
        • Whitcomb BW
        • et al.
        Youden index and optimal cut-point estimated from observations affected by a lower limit of detection.
        Biometrical J. 2008; 50: 419-430https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.200710415
        • Akobeng AK.
        Understanding diagnostic tests 2: likelihood ratios, pre- and post-test probabilities and their use in clinical practice.
        Acta Paediatr. 2007; 96: 487-491https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2006. 00179.x
        • Sengupta D
        • Saha G.
        Study on similarity among Indian languages using language verification framework.
        Adv Artificial Intell. 2015; 2015: 1-24https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/325703
        • Savithri SR
        • Jayaram M.
        Rate of speech/reading in Dravidian languages.
        J All India Inst Speech Hear. 2008; 27: 29-39
        • Barsties v
        • Latoszek B
        • Kim G
        • et al.
        The validity of the acoustic breathiness index in the evaluation of breathy voice quality: a meta-analysis.
        Clin Otolaryngol. 2021; 46: 31-40https://doi.org/10.1111/coa.13629
        • Klatl DH
        • Klati LC.
        Analysis, synthesis, and perception of voice quality variations among female and male talkers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1998; 87: 820https://doi.org/10.1121/1.398894
        • Rammage LA
        • Peppard RC
        • Bless DM.
        Aerodynamic, laryngoscopic, and perceptual-acoustic characteristics in dysphonic females with posterior glottal chinks: a retrospective study.
        J Voice. 1992; 6: 64-78https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-1997(05)80010-4
        • Abitbol J
        • Abitbol P
        • Abitbol B.
        Sex hormones and the female voice.
        J Voice. 1999; 13https://doi.org/10.1016/S0892-1997(99)80048-4
        • Brockmann M
        • Drinnan MJ
        • Storck C
        • et al.
        Reliable jitter and shimmer measurements in voice clinics: the relevance of vowel, gender, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency effects in a typical clinical task.
        J Voice. 2011; 25: 44-53https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2009. 07.002
        • Hosokawa K
        • Barsties v Latoszek B
        • Iwahashi T
        • et al.
        The acoustic voice quality index version 03.01 for the Japanese-speaking population.
        J Voice. 2019; 33 (e1-125.e12): 125https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.10.003
        • Kreiman J
        • Gerratt BR.
        Sources of listener disagreement in voice quality assessment.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2000; 108: 1867-1876https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1289362
        • Chan KMK
        • Yiu EML.
        The effect of anchors and training on the reliability of perceptual voice evaluation.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002; 45: 111-126https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/009
        • Kreiman J
        • Gerratt BR
        • Precoda K
        • et al.
        Individual differences in voice quality perception.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1992; 35: 512-520https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3503.512
        • Ghio A
        • Dufour S
        • Wengler A
        • et al.
        Perceptual evaluation of dysphonic voices: can a training protocol lead to the development of perceptual categories?.
        J Voice. 2015; 29: 304-311https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JVOICE.2014.07.006