Advertisement

Self-Perception of Vocal Effort in Response to Modeled Communication Demands

  • Mark L. Berardi
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mark L. Berardi, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, Building 82, 53127 Bonn, NRW, Germany.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    Search for articles by this author
  • Eric J. Hunter
    Affiliations
    Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Summary

      Objectives

      The optimization of vocal effort given a response to a voice demand is a common clinical and vocal performance goal. Increases in vocal effort are often in response to communication limitations from both the interlocutors and the communication environment. This study investigates the relationship between vocal effort and vocal demands from changes and limitations imposed by the communication environment.

      Methods

      Thirty-seven participants rated their vocal effort associated with a map description task in a range of communication demands. These demands included communication distance (from 1 m to 4 m), loudness goal (54 dB–66 dB), and excess background noise (53 dBA–71 dBA). The vocal effort ratings were compared across the different types and extents of vocal demand conditions.

      Results

      As would be expected, there were significant increases in vocal effort levels from the control condition to the extremes of the distance and loudness goal vocal demands. Each increase in background noise resulted in distinct increases in vocal effort level. Participants were able to use the vocal effort scale to efficiently quantify expected increases in vocal demands.

      Conclusions

      Increases of vocal effort level accompany increases to vocal demands that exceed the habitual or expected communication. While voice training and vocal therapy are essential for reducing internal vocal demands, clients with a goal to reduce vocal effort should also consider external vocal demands such as communication distance and background noise.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hicks C.B.
        • Tharpe A.M.
        Listening effort and fatigue in school-age children with and without hearing loss.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002; 45: 573-584https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/046
        • Hunter E.J.
        • Cantor-Cutiva C.
        • van Leer E.
        Toward a consensus description of vocal effort, vocal load, vocal loading, and vocal fatigue.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2020; 63: 509-532https://doi.org/10.1044/2019_JSLHR-19-00057
        • Ben-David B.M.
        • Icht M.
        Voice changes in real speaking situations during a day, with and without vocal loading: assessing call center operators.
        J Voice. 2016; 30 (:247.e1–11.)
        • Cantor-Cutiva L.C.
        • Banks R.
        • Berardi M.
        • et al.
        From vocal effort to vocal fatigue. What does the literature say.
        in: Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Voice Physiology and Biomechanics, East Lansing, MI. 2018 (Available at:)
        https://indico.fnal.gov/event/15214
        Date accessed: May 1, 2022
        • Cantor-Cutiva C.
        • Bottalico P.
        • Hunter E.
        Work-related communicative profile of radio broadcasters: a case study.
        Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2019; 44: 178-191https://doi.org/10.1080/14015439.2018.1504983
        • van Mersbergen M.
        • Beckham B.H.
        • Hunter E.J.
        Do we need a measure of vocal effort? Clinician's report of vocal effort in voice patients.
        Perspect ASHA SIGs. 2021; 6: 69-79https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_PERSP-20-00258
        • van Leer E.
        • van Mersbergen M.
        Using the Borg CR10 physical exertion scale to measure patient-perceived vocal effort pre and post treatment.
        J. Voice. 2017; 31: 389.e19-389.e25https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.09.023
        • Lombard E.
        Le signe de l'elevation de la voix.
        Ann Mal de L'Oreille et du Larynx. 1911; : 101-119
        • Junqua J.C.
        The Lombard reflex and its role on human listeners and automatic speech recognizers.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1993; 93: 510-524https://doi.org/10.1121/1.405631
        • Bottalico P.
        • Graetzer S.
        • Hunter E.J.
        Effects of voice style, noise level, and acoustic feedback on objective and subjective voice evaluations.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2015; 138: EL498-EL503https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4936643
        • Traunmüller H.
        • Eriksson A.
        Acoustic effects of variation in vocal effort by men, women, and children.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2000; 107: 3438-3451https://doi.org/10.1121/1.429414
        • Liénard J.S.
        • Di Benedetto M.G.
        Effect of vocal effort on spectral properties of vowels.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1999; 106: 411-422https://doi.org/10.1121/1.428140
        • Mattei A.
        • Legou T.
        • Cardeau A.
        Acoustic correlates of vocal effort: external factors and personality traits.
        Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2019; 136: 151-154https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anorl.2019.02.010
        • Pelegrín-García D.
        • Smits B.
        • Brunskog J.
        • et al.
        Vocal effort with changing talker-to-listener distance in different acoustic environments.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 2011; 129: 1981-1990https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3552881
        • Xu N.
        • Burnham D.
        • Kitamura C.
        • et al.
        Vowel hyperarticulation in parrot-, dog- and infant-directed speech.
        Anthrozoös. 2013; 26: 373-380https://doi.org/10.2752/175303713X13697429463592
        • Foulkes P.
        • Docherty G.J.
        • Watt D.
        Phonological variation in child-directed speech.
        Language. 2005; 81: 177-206https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0018
        • Ferguson S.H.
        • Kewley-Port D.
        Talker differences in clear and conversational speech: acoustic characteristics of vowels.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007; 50: 1241-1255https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/087
        • Tracy L.F.
        • Segina R.K.
        • Cadiz M.D.
        • et al.
        The impact of communication modality on voice production.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2020; 63: 2913-2920https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00161
        • Echternach M.
        • Huseynov J.
        • Döllinger M.
        • et al.
        The impact of a standardized vocal loading test on vocal fold oscillations.
        Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020; 277: 1699-1705https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-05791-5
        • Bottalico P.
        • Passione I.I.
        • Graetzer S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the starting point of the Lombard effect.
        Acta Acust United Acust. 2017; 103: 169-172https://doi.org/10.3813/AAA.919043
        • Bottalico P.
        Speech adjustments for room acoustics and their effects on vocal effort.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 392.e1-392.e12https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.10.001
        • van Mersbergen M.
        • Vinney L.A.
        • Payne A.E.
        Cognitive influences on perceived phonatory exertion using the Borg CR10.
        Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2020; 45: 123-133https://doi.org/10.1080/14015439.2019.1617895
      1. Borg G. Borg's perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign, IL:Human kinetics, 1998, ISBN: 0-88011-623-4.

        • Hunter E.J.
        • Berardi M.L.
        • van Mersbergen M.
        Relationship between tasked vocal effort levels and measures of vocal intensity.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2021; 64: 1829-1840https://doi.org/10.1044/2021_JSLHR-20-00465
        • Rosen C.A.
        • Lee A.S.
        • Osborne J.
        • et al.
        Development and validation of the voice handicap index-10.
        Laryngoscope. 2004; 114: 1549-1556https://doi.org/10.1097/00005537-200409000-00009
        • Nanjundeswaran C.
        • Jacobson B.H.
        • Gartner-Schmidt J.
        • et al.
        Vocal fatigue index (VFI): development and validation.
        J. Voice. 2015; 29: 433-440https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2014.09.012
        • Rammstedt B.
        • Kemper C.J.
        • Klein M.C.
        • et al.
        A short scale for assessing the big five dimensions of personality: 10 item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10).
        17 Pages /methods, data, analyses. 2013; 7 (2017)https://doi.org/10.12758/mda.2013.013
        • Hall E.E.
        • Ekkekakis P.
        • Petruzzello S.J.
        Is the relationship of RPE to psychological factors intensity-dependent?.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 1365-1373https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000174897.25739.3c
        • Krok J.L.
        • Baker T.A.
        The influence of personality on reported pain and self-efficacy for pain management in older cancer patients.
        J Health Psychol. 2014; 19: 1261-1270https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105313488976
      2. ISO 9921. Ergonomics—Assessment of speech communication. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva;2003.

      3. IBM Corp. Released 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

        • Roy N.
        • Weinrich B.
        • Gray S.D.
        • et al.
        Voice amplification versus vocal hygiene instruction for teachers with voice disorders.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002; 45: 625-638https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2002/050
        • Smith L.M.
        • Wang L.
        • Mazur K.
        • et al.
        Impacts of COVID-19-related social distancing measures on personal environmental sound exposures.
        Environ Res Lett. 2020; 15104094https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abb494
        • Kristiansen J.
        • Lund S.P.
        • Persson R.
        A study of classroom acoustics and school teachers' noise exposure, voice load and speaking time during teaching, and the effects on vocal and mental fatigue development.
        Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2014; 87: 851-860https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-014-0927-8
        • Sliwinska-Kowalska M.
        • Niebudek-Bogusz E.
        • Fiszer M.
        • et al.
        The prevalence and risk factors for occupational voice disorders in teachers.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2006; 58: 85-101https://doi.org/10.1159/000089610