Optimizing Diameter, Length, and Water Immersion in Flow Resistant Tube Vocalization

Published:November 07, 2022DOI:



      The objective was to quantify the range of airflow resistance and oral pressure attainable with variation of length, diameter, and water immersion depth of tubes and straws.

      Study Design

      Pressure-flow equations for tubes, determined previously for variable tube geometries, were used to calculate oral pressure ranges. Human subjects were then recruited to use the variable tube geometries to produce oral pressures, which were quantified with commercial manometers.


      Nomograms for airflow resistances and oral pressures are plotted as a function of tube length, tube diameter, and water insertion depth.


      It is shown that tube diameters in the range of 2.5-3.0 mm with tube lengths of 10-40 cm produce oral pressures in the range of 10-40 cm H2O. Insertion of the distal end into water adds a pressure in the amount of the depth of insertion. Maximum power transfer with different tube geometries is discussed.

      Key Words

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