Advertisement

Semi-occluded Nasal Tract Exercises (SONTEs): Nasal Tube in Water Exercises Using Nasal Consonants

Published:December 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2022.11.023

      Summary

      Objective

      This study analyzes the effects of the vocal exercises called semi-occluded nasal tract exercises (SONTEs), which were carried out with a new appliance that extends the nasal cavity as a part of the vocal tract. The acoustic, aerodynamic and electroglottographic (EGG) measurements were compared with those of the traditional semi-occluded vocal tract exercises (SOVTEs) of phonation in water.

      Methods

      In this study, 34 women were randomly asked to perform phonation in water for 5 min through the nasal and oral routes with the sounds /m/ and /ɔ/, respectively, using a tube with a submersion depth of 5 cm. The acoustic, aerodynamic and EGG measurements before and after the exercises were analyzed using the appropriate statistical methods.

      Results

      No significant difference was found in the time and frequency domain parameters before and after the exercises, except for the amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ) values, which decreased after both exercises. In addition, there was no significant difference in any aerodynamic parameters before and after the exercises, but the mean SPL values significantly increased after both exercises. The oral and nasal peak inspiratory flow rates increased after both exercises, but the increase peaked after the SONTEs implementation. As expected, the EGG–jitter and EGG–periodicity values had a reciprocal interaction with each other, while differences were observed between the values of the vocal fold movements measured in both exercises.

      Conclusions

      SONTEs may be as effective as the conventional SOVTEs because it made tube phonation into water possible through artificial extension of the nasal cavity and increased the resonant effect by using the positive effects based on the principles of SOVTEs.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Voice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • Titze I.R.
        Acoustic interpretation of resonant voice.
        J Voice. 2001; 15: 519-528
        • Verdolini-Marston K.
        • Burke M.K.
        • et al.
        Preliminary study of twomethods of treatment for laryngeal nodules.
        J Voice. 1995; 9: 74-85
        • Radhakrishnan N.N.
        Nasal Resistance (NR) Technique: A Nove lApproach to Improve Glottal Adduction.
        J Voice. 2020; 36: 91-97
        • Chen S.H.
        • Hsiao T.Y.
        • Hsiao L.C.
        • et al.
        Outcome of resonant voice therapy for female teachers with voice disorders: perceptual, physiological, acoustic, aerodynamic, and functional measurements.
        J Voice. 2007; 21: 415-425
        • Yiu E.M.
        • Ho E.Y.
        Short-term effect of humming on vocal quality.
        Asia Pacific Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing. 2002; 7: 123-137
        • Story B.H.
        • Laukkanen A.M.
        • Titze I.R.
        Acoustic impedance of an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract.
        J Voice. 2000; 14: 455-469
        • Mills R.D.
        • Rivedal S.
        • DeMorett C.
        • et al.
        Effects of straw phonation through tubes of varied lengths on sustained vowels in normal-voiced participants.
        J Voice. 2018; 32 (-e21): 386
        • Titze I.R.
        Voice training and therapy with a semi-occluded vocal tract: rationale and scientific underpinnings.
        J Speech, Language & Hearing Research. 2006; 49: 448-459
        • Titze I.
        Major benefits of semi-occluded vocal tract exercises.
        Journal of Singing. 2018; 74: 311-312
        • Andrade P.A.
        • Wistbacka G.
        • Larsson H.
        • et al.
        The flow and pressure relationships in different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises.
        J Voice. 2016; 30: 36-41
        • Adams J.A.
        A closed-loop theory of motor learning.
        J Mot Behav. 1971; 3: 111-150
      1. Papachristou A, Bourli E, Aivazi D, et al. Normal peak nasal inspiratory flow rate values in Greek children and adolescents. Hippokratia. 2008;12:94–97.

        • Cangi M.E.
        • Yılmaz G.
        • Tabak E.
        • et al.
        Effect of varied tube phonation in water exercises on nasometric and electroglottographic parameters: modification in terms of fluid density and tube submerged depth.
        J Voice. 2022; (In Press);
        • Echternach M
        • Köberlein M
        • Gellrich D
        • et al.
        Duration of biodynamic changes associated with water resistance therapy.
        Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2021; 46: 126-133
      2. Tulunoğlu S, Cangi ME, Yılmaz G, et al. The immediate and long-term effects of tube and mask+ tube phonation in water exercises and their duration as measured by electroglottographic and nasometric parameters. J Voice. 2022; (In Press).

        • Holmstrom M.
        • Scadding G.K.
        • Lund V.J.
        • et al.
        Assessment of nasal obstruction. a comparison between rhinomanometry and nasal inspiratory peakf low.
        Rhinology. 1990; 28: 191-196
      3. Yılmaz G, Cangi M.E., Yelken K. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of acoustic and electroglottographic parameters with different sustained vowels. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2022;47:284–291.

        • Titze I.R.
        • Story B.H.
        Acoustic interactions of the voice source with the lower vocal tract.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1997; 101: 2234-2243
        • Titze I.R.
        The physics of small-amplitude oscillation of the vocal folds.
        J Acoust Soc Am. 1988; 83: 1536-1552
        • Meerschman I.
        • Van Lierde K.
        • Peeters K.
        • et al.
        Short-term effect of two semi-occluded vocal tract training programs on the vocal quality of future occupational voice users: “Resonant Voice Training Using Nasal Consonants” versus “Straw Phonation”.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017; 60: 2519-2536
        • Bielamowicz S.
        • Kreiman J.
        • Gerratt B.R.
        • Dauer M.S.
        • Berke G.S.
        Comparison of voice analysis systems for perturbation measurement.
        J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1996; 39: 126-134
        • Yiu E.M.
        Limitations of perturbation measures in clinical acoustic voice analysis.
        Asia Pac J Speech, Lang Hear. 1999; 4: 155-166
        • Iwahashi T.
        • Ogawa M.
        • Hosokawa K.
        • et al.
        The effects of humming on the prephonatory vocal fold motion sunder high-speed digital imaging in non dysphonic speakers.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 291-299
        • Ogawa M.
        • Hosokawa K.
        • Yoshida M.
        • et al.
        Immediate effectiveness of humming on the supraglottic compression in subjects with muscle tension dysphonia.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2013; 65: 123-128
        • Ogawa M.
        • Hosokawa K.
        • Yoshida M.
        • et al.
        Immediate effects of humming on computed electroglottographic parameters in patients with muscle tension dysphonia.
        J Voice. 2014; 28: 733-741
        • Vlot C.
        • Ogawa M.
        • Hosokawa K.
        • et al.
        Investigation of the immediate effects of humming on vocal fold vibration irregularity using electroglottography and high-speed laryngoscopy in patients with organic voice disorders.
        J Voice. 2017; 31: 48-56
        • Gaskill C.S.
        • Erickson M.L.
        The Effect of a voiced liptrill on estimated glottal closed quotient.
        J Voice. 2008; 22: 634-643
        • Guzman M.
        • Laukkanen A.-M.
        • Krupa P.
        • et al.
        Vocal tract and glottal function during and after vocal exercising with resonance tube and straw.
        J Voice. 2013; 27: 523.e519-523.e534
        • Miller D.G.
        • Schutte H.K.
        Effects of down stream occlusions on pressures near the glottis in singing.
        Vocal Fold Physiology. Acoustic, Perceptual and Physiological Aspects of Voice Mechanisms, San Diego, Singular1991: 91-98
        • Dargin T.C.
        • Searl J.
        Semi-occluded vocal tract exercises: aerodynamic and electroglottographic measurements in singers.
        J Voice. 2015; 29: 155-164
        • Laukkanen A.M.
        • Lindholm P.
        • Vilkman E.
        On the effects of various vocal training methods on glottal resistance and efficiency. A preliminary report.
        Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1995; 47: 324-330
        • Robieux C.
        • Galant C.
        • Lagier A.
        • et al.
        Direct measurement of pressures involved in vocal exercises using semi-occluded vocal tracts.
        Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology. 2015; 40: 106-112