Research Article|Articles in Press

Carnatic Classical Singers’ Interest and Knowledge Levels of Vocal Function and Dysfunction: A Cross-sectional Survey

Published:February 13, 2023DOI:



      The present study aimed to determine the interest and knowledge levels of Indian Carnatic classical singers concerning the vocal function and dysfunction.

      Study Design

      Cross-sectional survey.


      Self-reporting vocal awareness questionnaire for singers comprising 61 items under nine sections developed by Braum-Janzen and Zeine was adopted and validated to the Carnatic music context. The data was gathered using the snowball sampling method. Each participant spent 10-15 minutes to fill the questionnaire. The 100 participants were divided into two groups based on years of individual singing experience, group 1: Singers with less than 10 years, group 2: Singers with greater than 10 years of individual singing experience.


      Few singers reported a thorough understanding in all areas except anatomy and physiology of voice production. As indicated by most of the singers, they were very much interested in expanding their knowledge in (1) the anatomy and physiology of the voice, (2) the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) and the voice, (3) the care of the voice, (4) optimal use of the speaking voice, and (5) functional vocal disorders. Further, in both the groups, there was a high number of incorrect and don't know responses. Differences in knowledge levels and interest levels between the two groups were non-significant in all areas (P > 0.05).


      Overall, the high number of incorrect and don't know responses suggest that many Carnatic singers do not have even basic knowledge of vocal function and dysfunction, and could benefit from education in these areas. Hence, SLPs need to develop education programs for Carnatic singers towards vocal function and dysfunction so that the development of voice problems in Carnatic singers can be prevented.

      Key words

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