Research Article|Articles in Press

Voice Outcome of Glottoplasty in Trans Women

Published:February 10, 2023DOI:



      This study investigates the short- and longer-term effects of glottoplasty up to six months after surgery on acoustic voice parameters, listener perceptions, and client's satisfaction in trans women. Secondly, the impact of chondrolaryngoplasty and voice therapy on the glottopasty outcomes was investigated.


      A prospective longitudinal non-controlled trial was used. Thirty-five trans women undergoing glottoplasty or a combination of glottopasty and chondrolaryngoplasty were included in this study. A voice assessment was conducted before surgery and 1 week, 1 month and 6 months after surgery. The following outcome parameters were measured: fundamental frequency (fo), intensity, frequency and intensity range, Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Trans Woman Voice Questionnaire (TWVQ), and visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring client's satisfaction. Listener perceptions of masculinity-femininity were collected using a listening experiment.


      Significant differences over time were found for all fo and intensity parameters, DSI, AVQI, VHI and TWVQ scores. Listener perception and self-perception of femininity was higher after surgery. Significant differences in evolution of listener perceptions were found between the groups with and without voice therapy.


      Glottoplasty improves voice related quality of life and is an effective method to increase the fo and associated perceptual femininity. After glottoplasty an immediate and short-term decrease in voice quality, vocal capacity and frequency range was measured with a progressive recovery on the longer term. Long term side effects of glottoplasty are a reduction in speaking intensity and intensity range. Voice therapy seems to improve the outcomes of glottoplasty, but should be further investigated in future studies.

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