Research Article|Articles in Press

Treatment of Vocal Fold Nodules: Transnasal Steroid Injection Versus Microlaryngoscopic Phonomicrosurgery



      Vocal fold nodules (VFNs) are bilateral, mid-membranous, swellings of the vocal folds. Intralesional steroid injection was successfully tried in the management of benign vocal fold lesions including nodules. The aim of the present study was to compare treatment outcomes of vocal fold steroid injection (VFSI) and surgery in patients with VFNs in terms of lesion regression, subjective, and objective voice parameters.

      Study design

      Nonrandomized controlled clinical trial.


      This bicenter interventional study was conducted on 32 patients with VFNs, in the age range of 16–63 years. Sixteen patients underwent transnasal VFSI under local anesthesia (the injection group), and 16 underwent surgical excision of the nodules under general anesthesia (the surgery group). Prior to intervention and at the follow-up visit, participants were subjected to videolaryngoscopic examination with evaluation of nodules’ sizes as well as subjective voice assessment by auditory perceptual assessment (APA) of voice and the international nine-item Voice Handicap Index (VHI-9i). Objective voice assessments including the measurements of cepstral peak prominence, jitter, shimmer, harmonic to noise ratio, and maximum phonation time were also administered.


      The size of vocal fold nodules was significantly decreased postintervention in both studied groups. There was a decrease in the VHI-9i score, a decrease in the values of jitter and shimmer, together with an increase in the values of cepstral peak prominence and maximum phonation time after interventions indicating improvement of subjective and objective voice outcomes in both groups.


      Office-based transnasal VFSI is a safe and tolerable therapy option for VFNs. Voice outcomes of VFSI were comparable to surgery, hereby VFSI can be considered a promising therapy for VFNs and could be used as an alternative to surgery in selected cases.


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